鄱阳湖学刊 2016年5期


Further Discussion on Chinese EcophilosophyMeng Peiyuan

Chinese people learned and realized the significance of ecological issues as early as in ancient times. Although they did not mention the term ecophilosphy then, they did something more practical for human beings, i.e., proposing the philosophy of “harmony between man and nature” on the basis of advocating a harmonious development. Chinese ecophilosophy comes from the same origin of Chinese philosophy, standing for the unique contribution of the latter. Chinese philosophy, in a sense, is ecophilosophy.

Ancient Chinese Philosophy is Ecophilosophy:On Meng Peiyuans Views of Ecophilosophy

Yu Mouchang

Meng Peiyuan pointed out in his writings that ancient Chinese philosophy is ecophilosophy. He not only revealed the history of Chinese ecophilosophy by citing other scholars works, but also made further study to share his viewpoints valuable to modern ecophilosophy research and Chinas ecophilosophical construction.

Transformation of Subjectivity from the Epistemic Subject to the Virtuous Subject:A Study of Meng Peiyuans Ecophilosophical ThoughtHe Xiao

In recent years, with the frequent conflict between man and nature, the living environment of human beings has been threatened and the ecological crisis has become more and more serious. Meng Peiyuans ecophilosophy is a timely response to these issues. Meng analyzes the root cause of ecological crisis and applies Chinas ancient philosophical ideas to his solution which focuses on changing mans ways of dealing with nature and transforming mans mode of thinking, i.e., replacing the traditional western epistemic subject with the virtuous subject in the traditional Chinese philosophy in relationship between man and nature. Moreover, Meng emphasizes that “benevolence” is the true feeling that man has when he faces nature. If man understands the feeling of benevolence, he can experience the “joy” advocated by Confucianism and attain to the state of “harmony between man and nature” in Chinese philosophy.

The “Meng Style Discourse” in Chinese Philosophy:A Review of Meng Peiyuans Chinese Philosophy ResearchZhang Simin & Qiao Qingju

Meng Peiyuans Chinese philosophy research covers three aspects: Neo-Confucianism, the Chinese philosophical way of thinking and philosophy of mind, and Chinese ecophilosophy. In his study of Neo-Confucianism, Meng attaches much importance to its development logic and category system on the one hand and sets Zhuxi studies as its core on the other hand so that his research is comprehensive and well focused. In Mengs opinion, the theoretical attributes of Chinese philosophy are subjective thinking and philosophy of mind and emotion—the former emphasizes the unity of subject and object, while the latter is the main pattern to develop the mind. In the aspect of ecophilosophy, Meng stresses that taking “harmony between man and nature” as the key proposition of Chinese philosophy indicates that ecology is the theoretical foundation of traditional Chinese thought. Mengs Chinese philosophy research is featured with clear disciplinary awareness, diversified research perspectives, the principle of unifying history and logic, and objective evaluation of Chinese philosophy. These four characteristics consist of the unique “Meng style discourse” on Chinese philosophy.

Garden and Politics: On Liu Zongyuans Garden AestheticsChen Wangheng

Liu Zongyuans garden aesthetics expresses its distinct political consciousness in four aspects. Firstly, sightseeing and governance. In his opinion,local officials should provide good conditions for civilians to live and work in peace and contentment in the first place, and gardens come second. Good gardens can help people keep a good mood to do administrative work. Secondly, gardening and governance. These two share a common ground of creating the true, the good and the beautiful while removing the false, the evil and the ugly. Thirdly, project and politics. Gardens are projects. The local governors should consider politics while carrying out garden projects.National situation, local economic strength and most importantly, civilians interest but not the officials pleasure should be taken into consideration. The several gardens built by the local officials and highly recommended by Liu Zongyuan are all politically conscious and reflect a benevolent governance. Fourthly,appreciating beautiful scenery and talented people. Just as the beautiful scenery invites appreciation, talented people also need to be put in right positions to better serve politics.

The Environmental Awareness in Empire Building during the Reign of Emperor Wu of Han DynastyZhang Wentao

During the reign of Emperor Wu of Han dynasty the creative power of environmental construction was so unique that the thought paradigm passed down from previous dynasties as well as accepted by the ruler at that time could not hold the vigor born in the empire. This tendency can be even frequently seen in environmental construction where the change in mindset is comparatively slow. To be precise, there are four representations. First, rebuilding Mingtang palaces to host a series of Confucian rituals and bring strong imperial powers together; second, expanding frontiers mainly to the northwest of the empire; third, searching the fairyland which was geographically northeast of the empire and was then gradually changed into the spiritual world; fourth, building celestial palaces which are related to the third presentation but signify a turn from the geographical searching for a fairyland to the direct pursuit from earth to sky in the three-dimensional environmental construction.

Treatise on Superfluous Things and Environmental Consciousness in Garden Architecture of Late Ming DynastyNie Chunhua

As one of the most important books on gardens of the late Ming Dynasty, Wen Zhenhengs Treatise on Superfluous Things best represents the elite literatis ideas of garden architecture in his times, so the environmental consciousness embodied in this book was quite typical in the late Ming period. By emphasizing the importance of a livable life with gardens, Treatise on Superfluous Things indicates that it is the consensus among literati in the late Ming period to pursue livability and appropriateness between man and environment. In this book, the architectural dualism between elegance and vulgarity suggests that the garden environment as a cultural symbol is the space where the scholars show their own aesthetic tastes and judgments. Gardens not only reveal the owners personality and talent, but also keep the identities among the literati through cultural practice. The garden building view of “being picturesque” in Treatise on Superfluous Things means a transition from the traditional imitative style to the picturesque style in the late Ming period, manifesting that it was the main principle of garden construction to replace miniature artificial rocks and waters with partly real hills and waters, and that it was hard for the garden designers to make decisions when confronted with the conflict between nature and art in the process of building gardens.

On the Quasi-ecocultural System of YuanyeLiu Yaping

Yuanye(The Craft of Gardens), a theoretical monograph on landscape design written by Ji Cheng of the Ming Dynasty, describes in detail the process of garden construction from choosing location to building some architectural parts. This book is nature oriented and advocates integrating scientific, religious, moral, aesthetic, and many other aspects into the garden so as to turn it into an ideal living environment as well as another avatar of man. By doing so, man and nature become a unity not only in the sense of life but also in the sense of ecology. Because Yuanye lacks ecological concept in the modern sense, we can only say that it has a quasi- ecocultural system. Nevertheless, it is very important and enlightening for our garden construction today.

On Development and Prospects of Farmers Sustainable Livelihoods Research Based on Ecological MigrationChen Shengdong & Kong Fanbin

Since it was proposed in the 1990s, the sustainable livelihoods theory has been widely used by scholars home and abroad in their research of migrant workers, landless peasants and other issues of rural poverty. Based on sustainable livelihoods theory, this paper reviews the relevant domestic and foreign research on ecological migration, sustainable livelihoods and sustainable livelihoods on ecological migration, pointing out that ecological migration is currently endowed with new meaning as we need to both protect the ecological environment and to reach the goal of reducing poverty. The sustainability of farmers' livelihoods is of particular importance, so it is necessary to carry out a thorough research on ecological migration policies by studying the sustainable livelihoods of the ecologically migrated farmers with the content of the 13th Five-Year Plan.

On Farmers Willingness to Reduce Pesticide Use and Its Influence Factors: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Survey of 471 Households in Jiangxi ProvinceLi Xuerong & Zhang Liguo

In recent years, the ecological problems caused by pesticide overuse has become one of the most highly regarded focuses of the government and various sections of society. How to realize the reduction of pesticide use has become an urgent problem to be solved. Based on the survey data of 471 households in Jiangxi province, this paper applies ordinal logistic model to the empirical analysis of the factors that may affect farmers willingness to reduce pesticide use. The results show that farmers concern of rural environmental pollution, their recognition of the hazard of excessive pesticide residues, their concern of agro-products quality, their agricultural insurance participation, their market responsibility traceability and the cultivation types of agro-products have a positive effect on their willingness to reduce pesticide use.

Kitchen Waste Disposal and Utilization in Tourist VillagesChen Ajiang & Yan Chunhua

The methods of urban household waste disposal can not be simply applied to the rural areas. Taking Ma village in the suburbs of Nanjing as an example, this paper focuses on how to properly dispose of and make use of agritainment kitchen waste in the nearest place. The household waste in the village is classified and collected. All garbage except kitchen waste is collected by the village cleaner, transported to the town transfer-station, and finally transferred to the city to be burned or buried. The kitchen waste is transported to the three-grid-fermentation tank in the village. The waste is fermented in the tank and turns into well-rotted manure which is used in the nearby fish ponds and vegetable greenhouses and achieves remarkable success. The mode of disposing of kitchen waste nearby saves cost,avoids environmental risks, and prevents imbalance of nutrient elements in the farmland system. This mode is applicable to places like tourist villages, suburban agritainment and small towns, etc.

The Predicament and Its Causes of County Household Waste Disposal : A Case Study of S County in Anhui ProvinceWu Jinfang

County garbage disposal is different from large and medium-sized cities. By analyzing the case of harmless waste disposal in S county, we probe into the predicament and its causes of county waste disposal in terms of location, technology, finance, and so on. For lack of financial support, there had been no specific waste disposal sites before 2005 in S county, so waste was simply dumped or piled, which resulted in serious secondary pollution. In 2005, S county government built an integrated garbage treatment plant through investment promotion. But after its running, the plant brought about serious pollution problems. As the villagers appealed to the higher authorities for help and stopped garbage trucks, the plant had to be shut down. The county government later began to look for new landfill sites, but three attempts all failed because of protests from the masses, leaving no sites to for landfills. County garbage disposal should be closely connected with the economic and social status of the county. The local government should choose appropriate technology, respect public opinions in site selection, and be scientific, prudent and rational.

Chinas Land Use and Low Carbon Development in the Process of UrbanizationLiu Changsong

With the rapid urbanization in the past thirty years, China's land use undertakes tremendous changes, influencing to a large extent the urban spatial form, energy consumption, transportation, ecological environment, etc., while leading to the fast growth of urban carbon emissions. Land use management is of great importance to achieve low carbon urbanization. By analyzing land use change in urbanization process with a reference to the impact appraisal of urban spatial structure and land use on carbon emission, this paper puts forward policies and measures to promote low carbon urbanization from the perspective of sustainable land use based on the summarization of current problems that exist in Chinas process of urbanization.

Gardens, Parallel Ecology, and Urban Life Community: An interview with Yang Chunlin, the Civil Expert on Ecological GardensSong Lili

When a heavy rain floods a city, it reveals the vulnerable urban ecological environment as well as the disadvantages of modern city construction. It is increasingly important to think about the restoration and reinforcement of the sustainability of urban ecology and environment. But how? I had this question for Yang Chunlin, a private Beijing based expert on gardens in my interview with him. This interview attempts to present how a nonacademic or private researcher on gardens understands Chinese gardens and what functions garden building performs in the sustainable living environment construction of cities today. Yang Chunlin regards the garden as a livable project and the city, too. In this way, city construction is the same as garden construction. Originating from nature and surpassing nature, Chinese gardens are the meeting point where man and nature coexist in harmony, reflecting the harmonious relationship between man and nature. According to Yang, the above meeting point concept should be integrated into urban construction. Meanwhile, it is necessary to introduce the mechanism of parallel ecology such as building meadows below road surface, planting local wild plants and weeds, and taking meadows, rivers, high buildings, people and even vehicles as a whole. By doing so, the city will be developed as a life community with a clear and feasible direction to the sustainable ecological environment construction.

Darwinian Science in Barbara Kingsolvers Prodigal SummerShi Jingbi

From the standpoint of Darwinian evolutionary biology, Barbara Kingsolver reputes creationism. She combines science with literature to seek the way of survival for contemporary people trapped in ecological crisis, exploring ideas and concrete life styles of sustainable survival. Barbara Kingsolvers double identity as a biologist and writer endows her novel with scientific and literary charm.

“Let the Line Be Drawn Now”: Wilderness, Conservation, and the Exclusion of Aboriginal People from Banff National Park in CanadaTheodore Binnema & Melanie Niemi

This essay elaborates upon the history of the removal of aboriginal people from national parks through a case study of the exclusion of the Stoney from Rocky Mountains(Banff National)Park in Canada between 1890 and 1920. It argues that the example of Banff National Park suggests that in Canada at least, and probably in the United States, aboriginal people were excluded from national parks in the interests of game conservation, sport hunting, tourism, and Indian assimilation, not to ensure that national parks became uninhabited wilderness.