Module 5 Ethnic Culture


时代英语·高二 2022年3期



According to historical documents, the forefathers of the Naxi people were closely related to a tribe called “Maoniu Yi” in the Han Dynasty, “Maoniu Yi” in the Jin Dynasty and “Moxie Yi” in the Tang Dynasty.

Between the early 10th century and the middle of the 13th century, production in the Lijiang area experienced marked changes, as agriculture replaced livestock (家畜) breeding as the main occupation of the people. Scores of agricultural, handicraft, mineral and livestock products were turned out, and the country presented a picture of prosperity. During that period, a number of slave-owning groups in Ninglang, Lijiang and Weixi counties gradually grew into a feudal manorial lord caste.

In 1278, the Yuan Dynasty established Lijiang Prefecture (自治州), representing the imperial court in Yunnan Province. This resulted in closer links between the Lijiang area and the center of the empire.

In the early Ming Dynasty, the leader of the Naxi people, named Mude, was made chief of Lijiang Prefecture, exercising control over the Naxi and other ethnic groups nearby. Throughout the Ming Dynasty, the chiefs from the Mu family kept taxes and tribute (貢品) flowing to the Ming court in the form of silver and grain. The Ming, in turn, relied on the Mu family as the mainstay for the control of the people of various ethnic groups in northwestern Yunnan Province.

Later, with the development of the productive forces, buying, selling and renting of land began to take place in the Naxi areas, marking the beginning of a landlord economy.

1. What was probably the main occupation in the 13th century in Lijiang?

A. Livestock breeding. B. Agriculture. C. Fishing. D. Forestry.

2. When was Lijiang Prefecture set up?

A. In the Tang Dynasty. B. In the Song Dynasty.

C. In the Yuan Dynasty. D. In the Ming Dynasty.

3. What does Paragraph 4 mainly tell us?

A. The good relationship between Mu Family and the Ming.

B. Yunnan Provinces economy in Ming Dynasty.

C. The achievements of Naxi peoples leader.

D. The Ming courts financial situation.

4. What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. The Mu Family B. The Rulers of Naxi

C. The History of Lijiang Prefecture D. The History of the Naxi Ethnic Group


Moving abroad can be a challenging experience. You leave your family, friends and everything you know behind. You enter a new culture where the customs and sometimes the languages are different. 1 Its a time to discover new things, make new friends and begin a new adventure.

So what are the best ways to involve yourself in the new culture while living abroad?

Live with a native speaker.

2 First, you have a friend! Living alone can be a lonely experience, especially if youre far from home. As for me, Ive had the opportunity to meet my housemates friends and socialize with them. 3 In addition, you have someone to tell you about the cultural customs and interesting places in the area.


The thought of making friends and mixing with the local people may seem scary at first but its worth it. You can meet other people in the area by joining a club, attending an evening class or participating in a language exchange with people that are interested in learning your native language.

Try the local food.

The food in France is amazing and discovering new food is a fun experience. 5 My knowledge of different bread and cheese types has grown greatly.

A. But its also exciting.

B. Socialize with the local people.

C. I recently volunteer to help the homeless.

D. Ive tried things that Ive never tried before.

E. You can also speak the local language every day.

F. I can improve my French in speaking and understanding.

G. There are many advantages of living with a native speaker.

1. _______________  2. _______________  3._______________   4._______________   5. _______________



Forty years ago, I was a boy of eight. At that time, if I cleaned the hockey (曲棍球) field near my home and1an empty envelope with an extra2 , I would get a photo of a hockey player. Hockey was my favorite3 . I wanted the photos of all my heroes, especially the members of the Boston Bruins.

“Michael! Youre going to put us in the poor house4stamps and envelopes,” My mom 5 . “But, Mom! I want to get the whole set,6all the Boston players.” Mom said, “Write the7carefully, so that it gets to the right place.”

When I finished, I put the envelope in the8the next day. Each day after, Id ask, “Mom, did it come yet?” “Michael, we just mailed it off. Be9 .”

A week later, when I opened the door, on the table was a brown10addressed to me. My heart skipped a beat. It was the first mail I ever11 . Inside was a photo waiting for my12hands to take out. I13the envelope, ran to my room, and opened it with shaking hands. There it was. I did get a14of the Bruins highest scorer—Phil Esposito.

For weeks, I had cleaned the hockey field. In the15of collecting the photos, I was making the field a cleaner place. Every week, I received an envelope. My collection16 . If I received a photo I already had, Id take it to school and17it with my best school friends. My collection was18when the hockey season drew to a close. I was so19to have all the photos of the Boston Bruins.

I now still have those photos. As I20them, I understand: if you want something, you have to be devoted, and you have to work for it.

1. A. found B. borrowed C. mailed D. unfolded

2. A. stamp B. note C. advertisement D. notice

3. A. place B. field C. show D. sport

4. A. buying B. making C. printing D. sticking

5. A. ordered B. shouted C. advised D. laughed

6. A. briefly B. totally C. simply D. especially

7. A. address B. homework C. sentence D. number

8. A. schoolbag B. drawer C. mailbox D. cupboard

9. A. active B. generous C. patient D. silent

10. A. parcel B. envelope C. toy D. case

11. A. posted B. designed C. prepared D. received

12. A. eager B. steady C. painful D. busy

13. A. left B. caught C. tore D. threw

14. A. ticket B. message C. prize D. picture

15. A. operation B. process C. movement D. project

16. A. increased B. remained C. disappeared D. improved

17. A. enjoy B. share C. discuss D. study

18. A. priceless B. complete C. unique D. useful

19 A. concerned B. calm C. curious D. proud

20. A. search for B. point at C. look through D. turn to




Festivals are a great way to experience a destination in a different way. This article will fuel your wanderlust and guide you to the best festivals.

St Patricks Day

Where: Dublin, Ireland & New York, USA      When: 17 March

St Patricks Day has taken place in New York City on March 17th since 1762. On this day, the whole city turns green. Many Irish make traditional bread on this day. It is one of the most fun days of the year in New York City every year, when the whole city turns into a big green party.


Where: Austin, USA                                         When: 10—19 March

Like free things? Yeah, me too! Free food, drink and music sound good? Welcome to Austin, Texas. SXSW is a festival for those who work in the music and film industries. There are “free” shows. You do have to pay but not by handing over cash; you have to give up some time to queue but it is worth it to see some popular stars.

Kings Day

Where: Amsterdam, Netherlands                      When: 27 April

Every year on April 27 Amsterdam turns a very bright color of orange for Kings Day, which is the birthday of King Willem-Alexander. Its a crazy fun celebration when the center of the city is car, bus, and bike-free. It is a market day when anyone can sell pretty much anything. Tips: Take a jacket with you, wear orange, and bring cash.

Just for Laughs

Where: Montreal, Canada                                 When: 14—30 July

For comedy lovers there is no other festival in the world better than Montreals Just for Laughs. The festival concentrates most of its shows in the Latin Quarter. During the day street performers delight the crowds and at night the city comes alive with comedy all over the city.

1. What do St Patricks Day and Kings Day have in common?

A. They are market days. B. They feature a specific color.

C. They begin in the same month. D. They are in honor of a kings birthday.

2. Which festival is about music and film?

A. St Patricks Day. B. SXSW. C. Kings Day. D. Just for Laughs.

3. What can we learn about Just for Laughs?

A. It offers free food.

B. It lasts for one week.

C. It is celebrated in many places worldwide.

D. It is thought to be the best comedy festival worldwide.


I was asked by a reader recently why so many animals seem to have pink ears, when their bodies are all different colors? The truth is that most animals actually dont have pink ears. Let me explain.

Near the equator, where the climate is hot, animals are likely to have darker skin, including on their ears. Think of the African elephant, which has quite dark ears. In colder climates, skin color is usually lighter and often pink.

Why is skin color different in different climates? Skin pigmentation, which is what gives skin its color, can protect against sunburn and skin cancer. When animals live in colder parts of the world, they dont need it as much to survive. Light-colored skin also helps animals stay warmer because it reduces heat loss, which is useful if youre in a colder climate.

For most animals, the color of their fur or other body covering has generally developed as camouflage. That allows animals to mix into the background and avoid being eaten, or for predators (捕食者) to remain hidden during hunting. One example is the sandy-colored coat of the desert fennec fox, which uses camouflage for both hunting and hiding.

By the way, in many animals, ears come in many different shapes and sizes. For example, in bats, the serval (a type of African wildcat) and the fennec fox, the ears are large compared to their body size—this helps them hear better because it allows them to sense more sound waves. Naked mole-rats have tiny ears because they need to dig a lot. Big ears would get in the way. The other downside of big ears is that you can lose a lot of body heat. Thats why animals that live in really cold places, like the Arctic fox, have quite small ears.

4. Who is the author most likely to be?

A. A teacher. B. A librarian. C. A zoo worker. D. A science writer.

5. What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 3 refer to?

A. Sunlight. B. Camouflage. C. Skin pigmentation. D. Light-colored skin.

6. Which animal uses its skin color to protect itself from being eaten?

A. The Arctic fox. B. The naked mole-rat.

C. The African wildcat. D. The desert fennec fox.

7. What can we learn about animals living in cold places?

A. They usually have small light-colored ears.

B. They know ways to store body heat.

C. They need big ears to keep warm.

D. They usually have good hearing.



There was a very rich village landowner in India who was very generous. Everybody1him. Once he decided that for three days he would2things, including money, only to the3 . People were happy to receive rice, vegetables, money and other kinds of things.

One poor man got a very heavy sack (麻布袋) of rice. Since he was such a poor man, he was very4with it. But when he emptied the sack, to his great5 , he found twenty gold coins inside the rice. His greedy wife was6 .

The husband said, “The landowner didnt7to give me these gold coins. This must be a8 . I should return these coins.” The wife said9 , “You are a fool! We are so poor. This is the time to take the gold to the10and exchange it for lots of money.” The husband11to do what his wife suggested. Then they12about the gold for hours. Of course, the husband13because it was he who had brought the rice home.

The following day, he went back to the rich mans house and said, “You were so14to give all of us so many things. I have found these twenty gold coins put in the rice sack by mistake. Now I have come to15them to you. Though I am only a beggar, I can16accept this kind of gift if it was a mistake.” The rich man was so17by his sincerity and decided to give the poor man twice the amount. He said, “You brought me twenty gold coins and now you are getting forty. You are such an honest man. I am going to18an honest man as my housekeeper. Will you come and have a19 ?”

As expected, the rich man finally found his20housekeeper—the poor but honest man.

1. A. pleased B. admired C. envied D. supported

2. A. give away B. get back C. throw away D. put back

3. A. sick B. young C. poor D. old

4. A. patient B. familiar C. honest D. satisfied

5. A. excitement B. surprise C. disappointment D. joy

6. A. frightened B. delighted C. nervous D. cautious

7. A. consider B. agree C. intend D. beg

8. A. test B. mistake C. joke D. trick

9. A. eagerly B. seriously C. foolishly D. angrily

10. A. office B. street C. village D. market

11. A. managed B. hoped C. refused D. expected

12. A. discussed B. thought C. talked D. quarrelled

13. A. finished B. won C. changed D. failed

14. A. wealthy B. optimistic C. kind D. careless

15. A. return B. send C. pass D. offer

16. A. hardly B. never C. seldom D. nearly

17. A. scared B. shocked C. attracted D. moved

18. A. treat B. train C. employ D. recommend

19. A. job B. break C. drink D. try

20. A. strict B. wise C. special D. faithful



Growing up in my household meant often hearing live music. When I was six years old, I took a traditional Irish step dance class. I fell in love and stuck with it for the next seven years. During that time my father also became more involved in the Irish music world, so he would play, and I would dance. My ethnic heritage (族裔归属) is German and Irish, but because I was surrounded by traditional Irish music and dance in my home, I have grown to be more interested in and connected to my Irish heritage.

When I started interning (實习) for the Folklife Festival, I became interested in traditional Basque music and dance and I learned that their experience with dance is very similar to my own.

There are so far over 170 Basque organizations in 24 countries, with a greater population of Basques outside of the Basque country than in it. The separation they experience from their homeland is both physical and psychological, so being part of a group with the same interests is an important social support system. These organizations contribute to the continuation of Basque culture, language, and community, and encourage future generations to learn about their ethnic heritage. One of the ways they achieve this is through dance.

While learning and performing Basque dances, they connect to their heritage, experience a part of their homeland, preserve Basque culture, and create connections and friendships that last a lifetime.

The dance performances of North American Basque organizations have developed the interest of non-Basque Americans as well. Janet Iribarne from the Basque Dancers explained that their organization is open to anyone, and after seeing her group perform, several of her non-Basque friends have developed their own love of Basque traditions as well.

1. What makes the author prefer Irish dance?

A. Her dance class. B. Her love of Irish music.

C. Her interning experience. D. Her familys strong root in dance.

2. What do we know about Basque people?

A. Most of them live abroad. B. Their culture is being lost.

C. They live in poor conditions. D. Their population is increasing.

3. What is the purpose of Basque organizations?

A. To help Basques in need.

B. To preserve Basque culture.

C. To provide medical treatment for Basques.

D. To support overseas Basque children for education.

4. What is non-Basque Americans attitude towards Basque dance?

A. They show no interest in it. B. They find it difficult to learn.

C. They are enthusiastic about it. D. They are concerned about its future.


In China, the history of people planting and using bamboo can date back as far as 7,000 years. As early as the Shang Dynasty, bamboo was being used in ancient peoples daily lives. It was used for food, clothing, housing, transportation,1(music) instruments and even weapons.

The2(apply) of bamboo in science and technology is thrilling. In 251 BC, Li Bing, in Sichuan,3(lead) the local people in building the Dujiang Weirs, the first irrigation (灌溉) network in the world, in which bamboo played an important role. The worlds oldest water pipe4(make) of bamboo, too. During the Han Dynasty, the people in Sichuan5(successful) sank a 100-mete?r-deep well with thick bamboo ropes. This technology did not spread to Europe6the 19th century, and it was by using the technology7the Americans drilled the first oil well in Pennsylvania in 1859.

In Chinese culture, bamboo is well-known8one of the “four gentlemen” in plants. To many people, bamboo is a symbol of goodness and9(honest). It is always closely related to people of positive spirits. Bamboo culture contributes to encouraging people to hold on when10(face) tough situations.

1. _______________ 2. _______________ 3._______________4._______________5. _______________

6._______________7. _______________ 8. _______________ 9._______________10._______________


Today Ill talk a little bit about Italian culture. Music plays an important role of the culture of Italy. Italian music is heavy influenced by its history. And the piano and the violin are said to have invented in Italy. Italians are fond of spend time with their families. In the old days, Italian families  used to be large. However, they are smaller in the size now. Family member always get together at every festival. As for sports, one of the most popular sports in Italy are football. The Italian national team is one of the better in the world. Another popular sports include volleyball, basketball, boxing or bike riding.



The world-known Silk Road across the Eurasian Continent is a friendship bridge1(connect) the Europe and Asian people. It is one of the most important theme tourist routes in the world and the most2(value) tourist product in China. From the time Zhang Qian3(open) up the world-famous Silk Road during the Han Dynasty, until the collapse (瓦解) of the Yuan Dynasty, it enjoyed4history of about 1,600 years.

Silk Road with5(it) 2,000 years history has witnessed the historical changes and the progress of cultures exchanges between China and the Western6(country). The section in China, many ethnic cultures7(include), is also like a jade belt (玉带). The peoples of these ethnic groups such as Mongolians, Huis, Uygurs, Hazaks have kept their own traditions and cultures, living habits and religious beliefs,8are from the soul of the Silk Road and attract many tourists to visit. In fact,9the Silk Road in the northwest of China, there are another two trade roads in the southwest of China and by sea, which also contribute10(great) to the development of the world. They are called the “Southern Silk Road” and the “Silk Road on the Sea”.

1. _______________ 2._______________3._______________4. _______________ 5. _______________

6._______________7._______________8. _______________ 9._______________10._______________










Teachers and students,

Looking forward to your joining.

The Students Union


Chinese Tea Culture


The History of Tea


Tea is native to China, and Chinese tea culture has a long history.

Originally tea was used as a medicine instead of a drink. It was said that Shennong, the legendary ruler in ancient China, once tasted a lot of plants and was poisoned many times. It was tea that helped him get rid of the poisoning effect. Later the ancient Chinese got to know more and more about tea, and instead of being regarded as a medicine, it became a drink.



Chinese Attitude Toward Tea


Among all peoples in the world, the attitude of the Chinese toward tea is unique.

They emphasize a lofty and leisurely mood, quiet and fine surroundings, freshness and clearness of water, elegant tea sets and close, good friends entertained.

In tasting tea, although the Chinese take a great delight in its brewing, yet their real purpose is to achieve spiritual ascendancy.

So, dinking tea is not just for satisfying the taste, but is a part of life.





How to Select Tea


The following steps are some simple ways that may help tea drinkers distinguish the good tea from the bad:

1. Tea leaves should always be kept dry. You can use your fingers to press tea leaves to see if they are dry. Slight finger press easily breaks dry tea leaves into small pieces.

2. Aroma is the most important factor. Good tea always smells good.

3. The color of the tea liquid and the shape of tea leaves vary with different types of tea. Generally, the tea liquid should remain clear and free of impurity, and the shape of good tea leaves in the liquid should be whole and even.


1. 茶叶应该保持干燥。你可以用手指按压茶叶看其是否干燥。轻微的手指压力很容易把干燥的茶叶弄碎。

2. 香味是最重要的因素。好茶闻起来总是清香扑鼻。

3. 茶汤的颜色和茶叶的形状因茶的种类不同而有所区别。通常,茶汤应该是干净无杂质的,好茶的茶叶在茶汤中应该是完整舒展的。