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年轻闯海人绘就绿岛蓝湾

2022-04-27宋浩

文化交流 2022年4期
关键词:黄鱼玉环凌云

宋浩

“茫茫东海披山洋,素称天然古渔场。海风轻吻碧波漾,金条夜舞是故乡。”这是玉环鼓词《渔民小调》里的唱词。

玉环市位于浙江省东南沿海,是台州市下辖县级市,西南紧邻温州。玉环方言有三种,台州话、温州话、闽南话。“人生海海”意思是人生如大海广阔,又变幻不定、起落浮沉,总要往前看、继续闯。

玉环面向茫茫东海,台湾暖流、浙江沿岸流、大陆径流在这里交汇,得天独厚的自然条件使这片海域成为鱼虾蟹贝等水生物的天堂。海边的人们以渔业为生,创造了独特的人文历史。如今,海上人家的生活也在发生着变化。

去年10月18日到19日,2021玉环闯海节举行,众多媒体和B站UP主体验了玉环市鸡山乡的风俗美食、现代渔业、新兴民宿,感受着玉环人共建共富的智慧和创举。

“人生海海,要闯精彩。”一代代闯海人的历史记忆和拼搏精神,就蕴含在这8个字中;玉环人建设共同富裕美好社会的不懈努力,也在这8个字中。

海上放牧,立志做“国鱼”

“冲风冒雨趁来潮,猎食渔船并力摇。”早一代闯海人继承着自古以来的捕鱼方式,修船织网,迎潮出海。风吹浪打、日晒雨淋中,他们与大海搏击,用汗水创造着自己的生活。

早些年的船小,条件差,出海有生命危险,现在老一代闯海人越来越少了。“60后”庄一萍说,她上一代很多长辈是这样的闯海人。有一个叔叔在一次出海后就没再回来,家中三个儿子,最小的还嗷嗷待哺。所以今天的玉环,渔民画、妈祖庙、杨八将等风俗,都体现传统闯海人祈求亲人平安的愿望。

今天,铁皮船代替了木板船,渔民画也从渔业生产的一部分变成独立的艺术创作。庄一萍小时候生长在海边,经常在海边看水手修船、在船上画渔民画。她后来走上了渔民画艺术创作道路,现在是中国民间艺术文艺家协会会员,作品多次获奖,受邀在各种博览会上展览。

渔业的变迁,更多体现在生产方式上。今天的新一代闯海人以海为田,耕海牧渔,传统渔业开始转型升级。

鸡山乡的中鹿岛位于鸡山岛东南15公里,由3个环形小岛形成天然海湾,这里坐拥洋流交汇处,海水溶氧量、天然饵料、温度、盐度都极好,千百年来就是黄鱼生长的天堂。如今,“80后”江凌云在这里开辟了一片海上牧场,放养黄鱼。

江凌云是玉环人,毕业于同济大学法律系。小时候看鸡山海域捕捞黄鱼千帆出海、满载而归的盛景,让他印象深刻。其中大黄鱼品质最好的,就是中鹿岛这片海域。2008年,江凌云辞职,开始创业。

2015年开始,他动了一个想法,包下中鹿岛海域,利用独有的自然优势放养大黄鱼,让鱼儿自由生长。经过两年的准备,玉环市中鹿岛大黄鱼海洋牧场渔业转型示范基地建成了。

江凌云到舟山、宁波、温州、宁德等地学习,考察后决定采用超大型围网、桩网连接、底部防逃等技术来建设牧场,“我们拥有这片海域的经营权后,没有采用传统养殖方法,而是斥巨资打造野生大黄鱼生长环境,保证每立方米海域只投放1到2条黄鱼,杜绝海水养殖过度开发”。

整个中鹿岛海洋牧场,目前已完成一期工程,预计最终年产量可达2000万尾以上。中鹿岛坚持以“野生传承,科学牧放”为理念,走可持续发展之路,逐步引进并应用“数字农业”相关技术,打造“智慧型海洋牧场”,突破了传统网箱无法抵抗极端性天气的难题,同时又保证了海洋水流的通透性,让牧场完美融入海洋之中。

“我们的大黄鱼不投喂人工饲料,以周边海里的鱼虾为食,不会造成水体二次污染;而且自然繁殖的大黄鱼幼苗也会通过这种‘透水’养殖方式游向外面的天然海域,这些幼苗比起人工增殖放流的实验室鱼苗,更适应海域自然环境,成活率也会更高。”

利用大自然馈赠的天然牧场,江凌云开拓出一条海洋经济蓝色发展之路。2019年,中鹿岛大黄鱼被农业农村部列为“全国名特优新农产品”。

江凌云未来的目标是把“中鹿岛”做成中国顶级大黄鱼标志品牌,打造成一条“国鱼”:“就像俄罗斯帝王蟹、挪威三文鱼、日本神户牛肉那样,提起中国的水产品牌,全世界就能想到中鹿岛大黄鱼!”

鸡山岛的老一代闯海人来基地参观后感慨:“中鹿岛这片海一直是野生黄鱼生活的地方,以前,一网捞上来很多,咕咕地叫,声音像小娃娃,送上岸去卖,就是市场上公认最鲜最好吃的黄鱼。”

“但从前捕鱼是个‘靠天吃饭’的活,有时收入不错,但有时只能勉强温饱,人常年在外,辛苦不说,风险很大。” 江凌云的新型渔业让老一代渔民感叹不已。

作为大学毕业的新一代闯海人,江凌云希望现代渔业模式能为家乡渔业转型升级和民生改善提供助力。2004年,中鹿岛海洋牧场与鸡山乡政府成立战略合作伙伴关系,将鸡山乡作为重点投资区域,为鸡山岛2000多户本地渔民提供创业机遇,带领大家共同致富。

去年6月,江凌云又与芦蒲镇政府签署“浙东南渔业小镇”项目协议,该项目也是浙江“民营经济助推乡村振兴,实现乡村共同富裕”的试点项目。

如今,鸡山岛上还有了“一网尽鲜”海鲜产品网络直播间,更年轻的闯海人开始尝试新潮的数字化方式,带着家乡的渔业闯入互联网的大海中。

从“80后”江凌云到更年轻的这些“闯海人”,不论养黄鱼还是卖鱼干,都与他们的父辈不一样。站上数字经济的快车,他们正带着乡亲一起,实现全面小康,走向共同富裕。

家乡的发展,始终是人的回归

像江凌云一樣回家乡创业的大学生还有很多,陈麒宇也是其中一个。1987年出生的陈麒宇,大学毕业后从事过多年医疗设备行业。疫情前,他辞职回到鸡山乡创业。

陈麒宇的父亲现在仍然在海上,是老一代闯海人中的一员。陈爸爸从十三四岁时初中毕业就到海上劳作了。在陈麒宇的记忆中,小时候看到父亲早上五六点去赶海,有时候一个月回家一次,有时候更久,“冬天很少见到他。”

现在技术进步,船的条件越来越好,船的吨位变重,父亲也已从水手变成船长。捕鱼方式也不一样了,现在可以用灯光诱捕,灯光撒下去,傻头傻脑的鱼儿就游过来了。陈麒宇说,父亲见证了中国渔业近半个多世纪的发展。

陈麒宇辞职后,在丽江旅游时,认识了一个做民宿的朋友,聊起来后他动了心思:鸡山岛也可以搞民宿啊!现在一线城市年轻人有“逃离城市计划”,家乡鸡山有美食、有海景,可以开发起来。

陈麒宇先与几个做民宿的朋友合伙,开了岛上第一家民宿漫野奢屿。之后他想尋找更多的可能,看中了岛屿最东边的火车村的一块空地。这片地方他小时候常来玩,地势高,四面空阔,是看日出日落的绝佳地。

他与村里谈。村里也有旅游开发的想法,规划在这里建爱情主题公园。陈麒宇觉得这样一个公园,不如由自己来开帐篷民宿。因为帐篷民宿在整个台州还属于稀缺产品,而玉环的位置很妙,是台州最南,距离温州很近,更远甚至可以覆盖江浙沪闽等地的市场。

对陈麒宇这个创业计划,家人一开始有顾虑。陈妈妈觉得太小众了:会有人跑来鸡山岛住帐篷?就算偶尔有一些客人,你十年工作的积蓄投进去,多久能回本?

陈麒宇还是想试一下,他知道家乡的好,也了解当下的消费潮流,“我是这里人,开发这个岛,我有很多事情可以做。”

今年初,陈爸爸禁渔期在家,也来一起帮忙做木工。民宿不少工作,比如搭建帐篷和摩洛哥风格的木架,都是陈爸爸帮陈麒宇一起完成的。鸡山乡政府对草坪的基础建设例如基础管道、电力等提供帮助,同时,村里和附近的乡亲也经常来帮忙。

但那个时候对陈麒宇的这个实验,不少人心里还是觉得有冒险的成分。那也是陈麒宇和创业伙伴最辛苦的时候,大到帐篷房间的设计,小到一个杯子,都要花心力去选。“我才明白,任何一家成功的民宿,都很花心思的。”

2021年5月,陈麒宇的“知野之也”帐篷民宿试营业,合伙人在自己的小红书上发布消息,纯粹作为完工的一个记录,还没来得及铺开宣传。但已经有网友来订房了,从五一开始到现在,不断有客人来住。

“前期主要是台州客人多,超过一半。后来有一位温州客人来住了,他回去后,温州人一下子多起来,连续一个月来的基本是温州客人。现在跨海大桥通了,温州过来只要一个小时。”

目前也有一些杭州、上海的企业来搞团建,陈麒宇说,“不久的将来,玉环通高铁后,杭州过来也非常快,到时候杭州、上海和江苏的客人将更多”。

客人多起来了,陈妈妈才认同儿子当时的坚持。看着10个帐篷排满了,她还提出建议:要不要增加帐篷?陈麒宇拒绝了,这片地方面积有限,增加帐篷密度会降低居住体验。

看着岛上的孩子在老家开起了帐篷民宿,岛上的老人们挺开心。夏天傍晚,老人们乘凉散步到这里,陈麒宇会给他们放越剧、放音乐。客人多的时候,乡亲们知道民宿有活动,也不去打扰。

“当我把这个民宿建好之后,很多朋友、同学纷纷来跟我说,这个民宿是你做的,真好!”陈麒宇会告诉他们,你们也可以回来发展的。

2021年10月18日晚上是“人生海海 · 星空歌会”,这场音乐节是“闯海节”当天的高潮,就在“知野之也”的草坪上举行。陈麒宇坐在靠海的一边,感叹说:“家乡的发展,始终还是人的回归,更多年轻的思想、年轻人的加入,让她有一个新的面貌。”

现在,陈麒宇的妹妹和他招来的几个朋友,帮他一起在这里打理。几个年轻人经营的民宿,吸引着年轻人来鸡山打卡。陈麒宇觉得,现在岛上的轻奢民宿也好、休闲渔船带游客出海捕鱼也好,这些能带动家乡发展、乡亲共富的新事物,需要他们年轻人多做一些实践。

人生海海,变化的是新产业、新思维,不变的是玉环闯海人的浪漫、乐观和自强不息。

清风吹来,这片富饶的海域正萌生新的希望;海边浪花不断,涌动着闯海人奔向共同富裕的力量。

Facing the rolling East China Sea, Yuhuan, a seaside Zhejiang city where the warm currents alongside the coasts of Taiwan, Zhejiang and Chinese mainland converge, is a natural paradise for aquatic animals. The seaside households living off the fishing industry have created a living culture of their own, which is now undergoing some changes.

From October 18 to 19, 2021, the latest edition of the Yuhuan Sea-riding Festival was held, attracting numerous journalists and Bilibili vloggers.

“Bravely ride the waves of your life.” This is a brief summary of how generations of Yuhuan people have rode their way through the sea and worked hard towards a better society of common prosperity.

Yuhuan is located at the southeast of Zhejiang and is connected to Wenzhou city at its southwest corner, run by Taizhou as a county-level city. The local folks speak three local languages: Taizhou dialect, Wenzhou dialect and Hokkien dialect.

The local wave-riders of the early generations have made a living from fishing the way their predecessors did.

Grandpa Guan lives in Jishan Island and is over 60 years old. Now he makes money by driving visitors and his local folks between the east and west ends of this narrowly long island. Several years ago, he was still out there fishing in the sea. Grandpa Guan became a fisherman at the age of 16, and his weathered face is a written history of how the man toiled his way from a sailor to a boat owner in nearly half a century. As a fisherman in his youth, as he recalled, he would sail with ten to 20 fellows for at most six months, and they had to stay up for two to three days for fish harvests.

The Yuhuan fishermen are gallant and romantic in nature. Yuhuan was originally an island, and its current connection to the land in its north has been achieved through local people’s heroic sea reclamation and dam construction in 1978. After that, the city has embraced improvement in its transportation and economy. In 2017, the Yuhuan government demolished the dam and built a bridge on its old site. Thanks to these efforts, a natural inter-connective water network has been restored, so has the beautiful ecological environment.

In the early years, sea fishing in the small, shabby fishing boats was very risky, so the wave-riders are thinning in number, according to Zhuang Yiping who was over 60 years old. Therefore, local people would create fishermen-themed paintings to pray for the safety of their loved ones.

Today, iron boats have replaced the wooden ones, and the fishermen-themed paintings have become an independent art category. Growing up at seaside, Zhuang often watched sailors fixing their boats and painted fishermen-themed pictures on the boat as a child. She then became an artist specializing in fishermen-themed paintings and now an award-winning member of the China Society for the Study of Folk Literature and Art.

The production mode of the fishing industry has upgraded as well. Jiang Lingyun, a young man born in the 1980s, created an aquafarm on the Zhonglu Island, where the natural environment is perfect for the growth of large yellow croaker. Jiang is a Yuhuan local, graduated from the law department of Tongji University. In 2008, he quit his job as a procurator and attempted to start his own business.

In 2015, an idea occurred to him: why not purchase the entire sea area of Zhonglu Island, and rely on the advantageous natural conditions to breed large yellow croaker there? After two years of preparation, the fishing industry demonstration base for large yellow croaker was constructed. Currently, the aquafarm’s phase 1 is completed, with a yearly yield of over 20 million tails. Aiming for a sustainable development, Jiang introduced digital-agricultural technologies into his aquafarm to make it as smart as possible. That way, he managed to pave way for a growing blue economy. In 2019, his large yellow croaker was listed as a top-level product by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

Meanwhile, there are many college students going back to their hometown to do businesses, and Chen Qiyu is one of them. Born in 1987, as a university graduate Chen was working in the medical equipment industry before finally quitting his job to return to Jishan township, the place where he was born and grew up.

He got his business idea when he was travelling in Lijiang city, Yunnan province, and during this trip he got acquainted and befriended with somebody in the B&B industry. Jishan Island was good enough for doing B&B, thought he, considering well-to-do city dwellers are always thinking about “running away from the city”, and his hometown with its nice food and views provides a perfect escape.

Chen opened up the first-ever B&B on the island with several friends of his, then he fixed his eyes on an opening at the east end of the island, hoping to explore more possibilities there. It is his childhood playground, high and vast, a best spot for enjoying sunset and sunrise.

He told the local government of the plan, and the latter agreed to the part of developing tourism yet preferred to establish a love-themed park instead. However, Chen was not sold on the love park idea, deciding to set up a tent B&B of his own. That was because tent B&B was practically new, and Yuhuan had this wonderful location to cover the tourism market of Jiangsu province, Zhejiang province, Shanghai or even Fujian province.

However, Chen’s mother seemed hesitant on this business plan at first, which, in her eyes, may end up with very limited customers. But Chen still wanted to give it a go. Chen’s father, who was home because of closed fishing seasons, helped him with a lot of carpentry and many villagers also came here to offer a helping hand.

They went through a most difficult period where everything from picking a suitable cup to designing tent rooms needed to be taken great care of. Finally, this tent B&B went on soft opening in May 2021. As soon as the news spread, costumers began to book rooms online and kept flooding in, mostly from the cities of Taizhou, Wenzhou and Hangzhou.

The tent B&B cheered local seniors up, who enjoy taking a walk here on the evening of summer days. On the night of October 18, 2021, watching a live concert being held on the lawn of the B&B, Chen said that the development of his home village always depends on its people, and more youngsters with their open mind should be introduced here for this village to turn on a new look.

Now, Chen’s sister and some of his friends are running this place with him, attracting a number of customers their age.

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