A Discussion on the Counteraction Tendency of Rural Students in English Learning
Abstract：In rural middle schools there is a common phenomenon， which is the counteraction tendency. The students are very young and weak in recognizing the matters with unstable interest and emotion. Undoubtedly， the existence of their counteraction tendency represses the students' learning motive， and further influences on the study progress and the study goals' realization.
The students' counteraction tendency affects greatly the advancement of English teaching. For the purpose of overcoming the students' counteraction tendency， we should start with the following two points， finding the solving method from teachers themselves and the school. The teachers may change their views， improve their qualities， and pay attention to the relationship between students and teachers， improving teaching method help the students set up their confidence and conquer the counteraction tendency， promote their study. The schools ought to increase the investment of English teaching， improve English teaching condition， and stimulate the students' learning interest in accordance with the new syllabus.
In a word， teachers ought to try different ways to help students eliminate this psychological problem to get the better teaching effect.
In rural middle schools， when students learn English， the counteraction tendency often appears. The reason is that students are too young to cognize objects， and their interest and emotion are instable. Psychologists think the counteraction tendency is a state that the mood is tedium or conflicting， is an experience that people feel antipathy and disquieted. Although students are very interested in new things， their interest and enthusiasm are greatly unsteady. Once the interest is lost and the fervency elapses， they will dislike the things.
I. Present situation and causes of the counteraction tendency
A. Present situation
In the process of learning English， students have two types of the counteraction tendency. Disappointment type. For mans nature， people hope to get praise from others， so do students. As soon as students merits and progress cannot acquire teachers support， they will lose aspirant confidence and motivation， and then it causes them to be in a disappointed or outcast sensation， thus they use negative and inhospitable attitude to treat surroundings. As time goes on， students will depress themselves with discontentment and counteraction. The other is Frustration type. Some students collapse after a setback， such as their dishonored selfhood， their injured pride or frustrated study. They will be hostile to all things ， will be indulged in irritancy and anguish all day and all night.
The writer finds that in rural middle schools， most of students feel that learning English words and grammar is very tedious， which cannot arouse their interest. Some students are weary of English class with their weak elementary knowledge， and their self-respect is often injured. A few students give up learning English for they disagree with the teachers teaching approach or oppose the teachers criticism. Some other students detest English for other causes.
Undoubtedly， the existence of students counteraction tendency affects the improvement of English teaching qualities seriously， which has mainly three causes as discussed below.
B. Causes on teachers part
1.Teacher centered English class
The teacher has two main roles： the first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom， and between these participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as and independent participants within the learning-teaching group （Jack C. Richards &Theodore S. Rodgers， 1986， p.78）. Teachers are expected to plan group and individual instruction that responds to the learners needs. But， in fact， teachers dominate the whole teaching process as a subject.
2.Inflexible and outmoded teaching method
To achieve a high standard， some teachers recapture the rough teaching method， as suspending class； punishing with writing； punishing with standing； even hitting students， in order to overawe education. Some other teachers have to give up their own teaching characteristics， neglect modern teaching instruments， but adopt frequently those simple “high efficiency” means. It hurts students learning interest.
C. Causes on students part
1. The implicit motive of studying English
In fact， the students know the importance of learning English， but they have no interest in it. Their recognition doesnt come from their own motive. Under most circumstances， they are learning passively. On the other hand， the students take little active part in English class， because they are afraid of speaking wrongly.
2.The traditional method of learning English， few opportunities to communicate
In rural middle school， the way of learning English is that the students do uncountable exercises and recite repeatedly. They use this way only for examinations， but not really for learning English. In rural middle school the students lack the situation of English usage to communicate in daily life.
D. Other causes
The rural middle schools are not able to develop the extracurricular activities that are suitable for middle school students language level. Because students mother language is not English and usually they lack a good condition to communicate in English， the development of their listening， speaking， reading and writing are affected. It also results in students counteraction tendency. Moreover， the pursuit of promotion rate is the main standard of judging teachers and schools excellence. This makes students feel be disgusted.
A lot of students think they are very sick and tired of study. They dont like doing many exercises， reciting books all the time. Too heavy study burden on students make them dislike learning little by little.
II. Suggested solutions to the counteraction
A.On the teachers part
1.Enhancing teachers qualities and developing a harmony between students and teachers
One of the main tasks for teachers is to provoke interest and involvement in the subject even when students are not initially interested in it. It is by their attitude to class participation， their conscientiousness， their humor and their seriousness that they may influence their students （Jeremy Harmer 2000.p.56）. Students like and trust the teachers who have good approach in teaching and concern students. If the teachers dont respect their jobs and devote themselves reluctantly， they will be indifferent to students. It is obvious that teachers emotion affects the mood and effect of students study， so the teachers maybe attach importance to investing emotion. From the beginning， teachers give students good impression and then help students advance their study interest. Besides， teachers may bring happiness into class. Just think if the teachers are stiff every day， the students must are frighten and dare not to communicate with teachers. On the contrary， if the teachers are affable in manner， praise and encourage students， create a cheerful and relaxed study condition for students， give students opportunity to show themselves fully and incite students to express their ideas， these will dig students potentiality effectively. Moreover， the teachers could be adept in using eyes. Eye is the window of soul. Its important that eyes improve teaching effect. When a teacher asks a student a question， he looks the student with trusting and encouraging eyesight， which gives the student courage. Finally， the student answers the question bravely. When a teacher goes into the classroom， the students are talking loudly. She sweeps eyes over the whole classroom， students stop talking quickly. The function of the expression in teachers eyes is vital. In addition， the teachers ought to respect students， which is the basis of the good relation between teachers and students. They can give rise to positive psychological tendency by teachers respect.