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世界与环境

2024-05-15曾沛楷

疯狂英语·读写版 2024年4期
关键词:演讲稿状语气候变化

曾沛楷

激活·素养解读

实践·读写整合

Climate change

气 候 变 化

1 Climate change is a longtermshift in global or regional climate patterns. Often climatechange refers specifically to the rise in global temperatures from the mid20thcenturyto the present.

2 Climate is sometimes mistaken for weather. But climate is different from weatherbecause it is measured over a long period of time, whereas weather can change fromday to day, or from year to year. The climate of an area includes seasonal temperature,rainfall averages and wind patterns. Different places have different climates. A desert, forexample, is referred to as an arid climate because little water falls as rain or snow, duringthe year. Other types of climate include tropical climates, which are hot and humid, andtemperate climates, which have warm summers and cold winters.

3 Climate change is the longtermalteration of temperature and typical weather patternsin a place. Climate change could refer to a particular location or the planet as awhole. Climate change may cause weather patterns to be less predictable. These unexpectedweather patterns can make it difficult to maintain and grow crops in regions that relyon farming because expected temperature and rainfall levels can no longer be relied on. Climatechange has also been connected with other damaging weather events such as more frequentand more intense hurricanes, floods, downpours and winter storms.

4 In polar regions, the warming global temperatures associated with climate changehave meant ice sheets and glaciers are melting at an accelerated rate from season to season.This contributes to sea levels rising in different regions of the planet. Together withexpanding ocean waters due to rising temperatures, the resulting rise in sea level has begunto damage coastlines as a result of increased flooding and erosion.

5 The cause of current climate change is largely human activity, such as burning fossilfuels like natural gas, oil and coal. Burning these materials releases what are called greenhousegases into Earth's atmosphere. There, these gases trap heat from the sun's rays insidethe atmosphere causing Earth's average temperature to rise. This rise in the planet's temperatureis called global warming. The warming of the planet impacts local and regional climates.Throughout Earths history, climate has continually changed. When occurring natu?rally, this is a slow process that has taken place over hundreds and thousands of years.The humaninfluencedclimate change that is happening now is occurring at a much fasterrate.

Activity A Reading for understanding

语篇解码

(一)主题归纳

What is the text mainly about?

_______________________

(二)结构分析与信息梳理

Fill in the blanks according to the text with only one word for each blank.

Activity B Reading for writing

一、词块积累

refer specifically to 特指

be measured over a long period of time 经过长时间的测量

change from day to day 天天变化

fall as rain or snow 以雨或雪的形式落下

have warm summers 有温暖的夏季

be referred to as 被称为

rely on 依赖

be connected with 与……有关联

melt at an accelerated rate 加速融化

contribute to 有助于

rise in different regions of the planet 在地球的不同地区上升

expanding ocean waters( 不断)扩大的海洋水域

二、典句赏析

(一)让步状语从句

But climate is different from weather because it is measured over a long period oftime, whereas weather can change from day to day, or from year to year. 但是气候与天气不同,因为气候是经过长时间测量的,而天气可以天天变化或年年变化。

【点石成金】whereas引导让步状语从句,当置于句首时,需要用逗号将从句与主句隔开。

【例句仿写】压倒性的科学证据支持这一事实,即气候变化正在发生,并且在很大程度上是由人类活动引起的, 尽管有些人否认气候变化的存在。

(二)时间状语从句

When occurring naturally, this is a slow process that has taken place over hundredsand thousands of years. 当它自然发生时,这是一个缓慢的过程,已经持续了几百甚至几千年。

【点石成金】When引导时间状语从句,并且when后面省略了it is。

【例句仿写】当忽视人类活动对地球气候的影响时,我们正在加速气候变化并破坏我们的环境。

三、写作迁移

每年4月是你校的环境保护月。假定你是李华,学校环境保护社社长,请你代表社团以“Slowing down global warming”为主题写一篇演讲稿。内容包括:

1. 描述全球气候变暖的现状和危害;

2. 分析原因;

3. 列举措施。

注意:

1. 词数80左右;

2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文連贯;

3. 至少需要使用一个本文中解析过的句式;

4. 注意段落内的逻辑关系。

Dear fellow students,_______________________

写作导引

激活思维

本次写作任务是写一篇演讲稿,要求我们代表环境保护社向全校学生简单、清晰地介绍全球气候变暖的现状和危害,分析现状的成因并列举措施。题目要求我们使用让步状语从句或时间状语从句。这些写作要求与所给语篇的主题语境是紧密相关的。我们可以通过整合同一主题的阅读材料的内容和语言,梳理写作思路和积累素材。

素材积累

本次写作任务是基于同一主题的语篇阅读的写作,我们可以通过学习、模仿并运用阅读中的语言表达,如词块和句型,积累写作的语言素材。

(一)开头

1. Ladies and gentlemen, today I would like to share with you an important issue thataffects our lives—global warming. 女士们,先生们,今天我想和大家分享一个影响我们生活的重要问题——全球(气候)变暖。

2. At this critical moment, we must face the challenges brought about by globalwarming and find solutions. 在这个关键的时刻,我们必须正视全球(气候)变暖所带来的挑战,找到解决之道。

(二)全球气候变暖的现状和危害

1. Global warming has made weather patterns become unpredictable, causing greatdifficulties in agriculture as we can no longer rely on expected temperatures and rainfall forplanting and farming. 全球(气候)变暖导致天气模式变得不可预测,给农业带来了巨大的困扰,因为我们无法再依赖预期的温度和降雨量进行种植和养殖。

2. Global warming also brings about more frequent and intense natural disasters suchas hurricanes, floods, heavy rainfall and winter storms, posing significant threats to humanlives and property. 全球(气候)变暖还带来更频繁、更强烈的自然灾害,如飓风、洪水、暴雨和冬季风暴,给人们的生命和财产造成了极大的威胁。

(三)分析现状的成因

1. The current climate change is primarily caused by human activity, such as burningfossil fuels like natural gas, oil and coal. The release of greenhouse gases from these combustionprocesses traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to an increase in Earthsaverage temperature. 当前的气候变化主要是由人类活动引起的,例如燃烧化石燃料,如天然气、石油和煤炭。在这些燃烧过程中释放出的温室气体将太阳辐射困在大气中,导致地球的平均温度上升。

2. Our deforestation and landusechange also contribute negatively to global climatechange. The destruction of large patches of forests results in increased carbon dioxide emissionsand reduces the capacity to absorb greenhouse gases. 我们滥伐森林和土地利用的改变也对全球气候变化产生了负面影响。大片森林的破壞导致了二氧化碳排放量的增加,降低了吸收温室气体的能力。

(四)列举措施

1. We must actively transition to renewable energy sources such as solar and windpower to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions. 我们必须积极转向可再生能源,如太阳能和风能,以减少我们对化石燃料的依赖,减少温室气体的排放。

2. The government should strengthen the implementation of environmental protection policies to limit the damage caused by industrial and agricultural activities and promotesustainable practice. 政府应强化环境保护政策的实施,以限制工业和农业活动对环境的破坏,促进可持续发展的实践。

(五)呼吁大家从小事做起,保护环境

1. Each one of us can take simple action to reduce our carbon footprints, such as conservingenergy, minimizing waste generation, and recycling. 我们每个人都可以采取一些简单的行动来减少我们的碳足迹,如节约能源、最大限度地减少废物的产生和回收利用。

2. The government should educate and raise public awareness to help more people understandthe hazards of global warming and the importance of everyones contribution towardsenvironmental protection. 政府应该教育和提高公众意识以帮助更多的人明白全球(气候)变暖的危害,以及每个人为环境保护做贡献的重要性。

写作支架

本次写作任务是写一篇演讲稿,根据任务中的要求,语篇结构可定为“主题介绍+问题+措施+呼吁”。文章的框架如下:

Dear fellow students,

I am Li Hua, it is my great honor to stand here to give a speech titled... As we allknow, ... For this reason, ... (主题介绍+问题)

As high school students, we should start by... Additionally, ...cannot be ignored, including...(措施)

In a word, ... Only in this way can we... (呼吁)

Thank you!

语篇过手

根据以上提供的主题、主题表达和语篇结构,写出一篇演讲稿。第一段介绍主题内容和问题;第二段介绍具体措施;第三段呼吁大家从小事做起,保护环境。总词数控制在80左右。

同时,学习运用前文阅读中出现的让步状语从句或者时间状语从句等高级表达和结构。尤其要注意文章的内在逻辑关系,以及语言的准确性、流畅性和得体性。

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