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语法填空命题特点及备考策略

2024-05-14昝亚娟

疯狂英语·爱英语 2024年3期
关键词:填空题分词谓语

昝亚娟

语法填空承载着在具体的语境中考查基础词汇和语法知识的使命,通过语篇考查考生对基础词汇和语法知识的运用能力。由于英语基础词汇和语法知识纷繁复杂,因此语法填空题成为考生最容易失分的题型之一。

一、命题特点和趋势

1. 语篇内容丰富,体现立德树人的价值导向

语法填空题的体裁多样,主题语境较为丰富。命题人在语法填空的语篇中常巧妙融入中国元素,讲述中国故事,弘扬中国文化,以提升考生的民族自豪感。同时,素材的内容与时俱进,体现鲜明的时代特征,使考生能够开阔视野,以发挥高考命题的育人功能,落实立德树人的根本任务。表1是对2023年高考英语语法填空题语篇的分析。

2. 考查方式

语法填空的设题方式包括已知提示类和上下文语境类两种。已知提示类设空一般为6至7个,上下文语境类一般为3至4个。已知提示类的命题中,提示词均为实词。上下文语境类命题中考查的词汇多为连词和一些固定搭配。语篇中的句子结构和常见单词的基本形式是考查的重点。

3. 考点全面,突出对主干知识的考查

语法填空题保持了近几年高考命题的特点:重视对基础知识的考查,考点分布均匀,突出对主干知识的考查。考查的重点是谓语动词、非谓语动词、名词、形容词、副词和复合句,包括名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句。此外,上下句的逻辑关系和习惯用语也是必考的内容。而冠词、介词和数词等则是考查频率相对较低的考点,通常对它们进行间歇性的考查。表2是对2023年高考英语语法填空题的考点分析。

4. 考點灵活,试题具有较强的区分度

值得注意的是,2023年新高考Ⅰ卷的语法填空并未考查名词的单复数、动词的时态和语态、定语从句、名词性从句等主干知识点,而是考查了4个非谓语动词。新高考Ⅱ卷的语法填空中,6个题有提示词,4个题未给出提示词。这充分说明高考命题并无真正的“规律”可言,这种命题创新方式提高了试题的区分度。2023年新高考Ⅰ卷的语法填空对非谓语动词考查的内容更加全面:第57题考查whether to do结构,第59题考查过去分词作定语,第61题考查动词不定式的被动式作宾语补足语,第65题考查现在分词作宾语补足语。2023年全国乙卷的第66题考查现在分词的完成式。与往年相比,试题的难度有所增加。由此可以推断出,高考对英语语法填空的考查角度和方式更加灵活多样,考点更加全面,对考生的语言能力提出了更高的要求。

我们来看几个典型例题。

(1)Nanxiang aside, the best Xiao long bao have a fine skin, allowing them61._________(lift) out of the steamer basket without allowing them to be torn or spill any oftheir contents.( 2023年新高考Ⅰ卷)

【点拨】本题考查非谓语动词。语境表明:除了南翔,最好的小笼包的皮非常劲道。当它们被从蒸笼里夹出来的时候不会被夹破,包子馅也不会溢出来。本句考查了allow sb to do sth的用法,意为“允许某人做某事”。结合语境可知,设空处表被动,所以应用动词不定式的被动式,故填to be lifted。

(2)No matter where I buy them, one steamer is rarely enough, yet two seems greedy,so I am always left 65.________(want) more next time.( 2023年新高考Ⅰ卷)

【点拨】本题考查非谓语动词。语境表明:无论我在哪里买小笼包,一屉总是不够吃,而买两屉又显得太贪吃了,所以我总是想下次多买一些。本句考查了leave sbdoing sth的用法,意为“让某人一直做某事”,设空处应用现在分词作宾语补足语。故填wanting。

(3)66._______(visit) several times over the last 10 years, I 67. _________(amaze)by the co?existence of old and new, and how a city was able to keep such a rich heritage (遗产) while constantly growing. (2023年全国乙卷)

【点拨】第66题考查非谓语动词。句中的状语several times over the last 10 years暗示visit这一动作已经发生多次,故用现在分词的完成式Having visited,以表示该动作是主语发出的,且比谓语动词的动作发生得更早。第67题考查谓语动词。语境表明:在过去的十年中,我多次来北京参观。我惊叹于新与旧的共存,以及一个城市如何能够在不断发展的同时保持如此丰富的遗产。第67题考查的是be amazed by的用法,故填am amazed。

二、备考策略

语法填空题旨在具体的语境中考查考生对基础词汇和语法知识的掌握情况,因此,在复习备考中要突出语境化的特点,坚持基于情境进行训练,重视基础词汇和语法知识的应用,以扎实地掌握基础词汇和语法知识,培养答题能力。

考生复习备考的主要任务之一就是系统地复习基础词汇,并进行适当的词类转换和拓展,科学地训练核心词汇,使自己能够在具体的语境中正确应用词汇。

1. 利用构词法,拓展英语词汇

在复习词汇时,考生应积累一些常见的构词法,如前缀、后缀、派生以及合成等。我们来看一组选词填空题。

fortune fortunate fortunately misfortune unfortunate unfortunately

(1)_________, everything worked out all right in the end.

(2)The artist died in poverty in 1947, but his art is worth a_________.

(3)David managed to escape, but the others were not so_________.

(4)You are not the only person to have suffered_________in life.

(5)I intended to arrive here an hour ago, but_________I missed the train.

(6)It was very_________that the power went out during the movie.

【答案】(1)Fortunately (2)fortune (3)fortunate (4)misfortune

(5)unfortunately (6)unfortunate

通过填写以上的六个句子,考生掌握了由fortune通过词性转换变化而来的单词的用法。考生不仅复习了前缀 un?和mis?以及后缀?ate和?ly的用法,而且掌握了它们在句中的用法。在语境中应用词汇,考生不仅掌握了这些词匯的基本用法,熟悉了英语的句子结构,而且为使用英语进行表达做了充分的积累。

2. 重视词汇在句子中的应用

脱离语境孤零零地记忆单词的做法耗时较多,且容易遗忘,因此词汇的复习应坚持“词不离句,句不离文”的原则。在句子中复习词汇时,考生需要理解句意,判断单词在句中充当的句子成分,然后选择单词的正确形式。我们再来看一组选词填空题。

succeed success successful successfully unsuccessful unsuccessfully

(1)It is reported that the experiment was a big___________.

(2)Scientists claim they___________in finding a cure for cancer so far.

(3)As a businessman, Arthur has been highly___________.

(4)Unfortunately, the advertising campaign has been largely___________.

(5)A number of patients have been___________treated with the new drug.

(6)When she was young, she tired___________to start several small businesses.

【答案】(1)success (2)have succeeded (3)successful (4)unsuccessful

(5)successfully (6)unsuccessfully

通过完成上面这组选词填空题,考生掌握了与success相关单词的用法,梳理和巩固了不同词类的用法,可谓一举多得。

3. 全面复习,突出主干

高考常考的基础语法知识主要包括谓语动词的时态和语态、非谓语动词、主谓一致、复合句、名词、形容词、副词、代词、连词、介词和冠词。重点考点包括谓语动词的时态和语态、主谓一致、复合句、名词、形容词、副词等。在复习备考时,考生既要全面复习,系统梳理,又要突出重点,强化主干知识的学习。考生应深入研究近五年的高考试题,弄清楚高考的热点和考生的易错点。下面以动词考点为例,我们来看看如何复习备考。

用所给单词的适当形式填空。

(1)English__________(teach) in middle schools in China.

(2)Mr Smith is a foreign teacher who__________(teach) English in China.

(3)Mr Smith__________(teach) spoken English in Xinhua Middle School this term.

(4)Mr Smith__________(teach) English in China since 2001.

(5)Mr Smith__________(teach) English in China last year.

(6)Mr Smith__________(teach) English in China next year.

(7)Mr Smith__________(teach) in the US for ten years before he came to work in China.

(8)Mr Smith enjoys__________(teach) English in China.

(9)Mr Smith expects__________(teach) English drama next term.

(10)I still remember the English song__________(teach) by Mr Smith.

(11)Mr Smith has many years of experience in__________(teach) English in China.

(12)I dream of becoming a__________(teach) when I grow up.

【答案】(1)is taught (2)teaches (3)is teaching (4)has taught/has been teaching (5)taught (6)will teach (7)had taught (8)teaching (9)to teach (10)taught (11)teaching (12)teacher

通过完成上面这组语法填空题,考生复习了谓语动词的时态和语态、非谓语动词以及动词与名词的词形转换。解题时,考生应关注句中的时间状语,分析句子结构,从而选用正确的时态、语态、非谓语动词形式或其他恰当的词形。

谓语动词、非谓语动词、名词性从句和定语从句既是语法填空题的高频考点,也是试题的难点和易错点。在复习时,考生要勤于动脑,分析命题特点,掌握解题方法。

用所给单词的正确形式填空。

(1)_________(put) your heart into your lessons, you will make greater progress.

(2)While_________(visit) the British Museum, I saw some Chinese cultural relics on display.

(3)_________(be) a medical expert, Dr Zhong Nanshan devotes a lot of his time to doing scientific research.

(4)_________(use) modern technology, China has successfully sent its spacecraft to land on the moon.

(5)Li Shizhen climbed high mountains,_________(collect) all kinds of herbs.

(6)Tu Youyou read ancient Chinese books again and again, eventually_________(find) a cure for malaria.

【答案】(1)Putting (2)visiting (3)Being (4)Using (5)collecting (6)finding

上面这组句子的共同特点就是主语是分词动作的发出者, 故用现在分词作状语,表示一个主动的动作。

对比下面两组句子。

(1)A. _______(design) in the shape of a birds nest, the National Stadium looks magnificent.

B._______(look) like a birds nest, the National Stadium has become a popular tourist attraction in Beijing.

(2)A. _______(build) by hand in ancient times, the Great Wall is considered as one of the seven wonders in the world.

B. _______(wind) its way across North China, the Great Wall is like a huge dragon.

【答案】( 1)A. Designed B. Looking (2)A. Built B. Winding

分析以上兩组句子可知,如果主语是动作的发出者,且动作正在进行,应用现在分词作状语。如果主语是动作的承受者,且动作已经完成,应用过去分词作状语。通过这种对比,考生可以掌握现在分词与过去分词作状语的特点,从而避免犯错。

4. 创设语篇语境,重视应用

在复习备考时,考生要尽量减少死记硬背基础词汇和语法知识;相反,考生可以在语篇中反复使用它们。在使用的过程中,考生可以把语言知识转换为语言技能。

We live in a competitive society that has both winners and losers. Experts, teachersand life coaches mainly teach us (1)_______to become winners. Few teach us a muchmore( 2)_______(value) lesson—how to cope with failure.

A society that worships winners tends (3)_______(make) horrible choices, whetherconsidered from a moral or a practical perspective. Consider the widespread practice of(4)_______(prefer) job applicants with a near?perfect grade point average over those withmore varied scores.

The conventional view is (5)_______someone with a near?perfect GPA will becomea near?perfect employee. Yet, there is a glaring flaw in this reasoning. A straight?A studentis not a perfect person but someone (6)_______ has never done badly in a course. This(7)_______(mean) that he has never really been tested. If he has not been tested to theextent of receiving at least some weak grades, then he has also missed out on learning tocope with failure. Such individuals tend to be perfectionists, and this trait is (8)(associate) with low resilience in response to failure.

An untested employee is likely to break down under pressure from real?worlddifficulties and (9)__________(challenge). Even if he does not fall apart (10)__________(emotion), he tends to be weak?minded and uncreative.

【答案】(1)how (2)valuable (3)to make (4)preferring (5)that (6)who (7)means (8)associated (9)challenges (10)emotionally

5. 创新训练方法,培养思维品质

近年的高考命题逐步加大对考生思维品质的考查力度,因此,考生应使用多种训练方法,强化对思维品质的培养。例如,在进行复合句复习时,寻找一组主句和一组从句,把主从句进行匹配。考生只有读懂句子,理解句意和逻辑关系,才能把从句放在主句中,使句意通顺、合乎逻辑,从而培养自己的思维品质。

选出下列主句对应的从句。

【答案】( 1)C (2)E (3)H (4)F (5)A (6)D (7)G (8)B

6. 及时总结,善于反思

在复习备考期间,考生应养成反思的好习惯,总结成功的经验和教训,改进学习方法,提高学习效果。在总结和分析高考考点的基础上,考生可以站在命题人的角度对短文进行设空并设计试题,以更加深入地掌握命题的方法和技巧。

总之,语法填空题的复习备考应坚持系统梳理,突出重点,重视在情境中应用的原则。只要方法科学,训练扎实,考生就能夯实基础,发展能力,从而更加轻松自如地应对高考。

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