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细读文本,剖析人物性格

2024-05-06广东

疯狂英语·新悦读 2024年4期
关键词:人格理论人物性格鲍勃

广东 吴 翔

【问题导读】

目前,高考英语读后续写主要以记叙文为主,故事的发展主要围绕几个核心人物。在记叙文中,核心人物的性格直接影响续写的情节构思。因此,核心人物性格的解读和判断显得尤为重要。在续写时,我们面临的主要问题有两个:

1.如何通过解读原文,判断出人物的主要性格类型?

2.如何依据人物的性格,合情合理地预测人物接下来的动作与选择,并有逻辑且连贯地创作故事?

【名师导学】

1.人物的心理、外貌、行为等描写往往显露出人物的性格。因此,在解读原文时,做标注能够帮助我们准确地描述人物性格。下面提供一种阅读时做标注的范式。

心理描写Psychology___description(PD)(AD)(BD)神态描写Appearance description行为描写Behaviour description

2.在运用形容词描述人物后,我们可以依据九型人格理论图确定人物的性格类型,并据此预测人物接下来的动作与选择,构思结局。

3.在续写后,我们可以将自己续写的内容与原文进行对比,分析续写内容与原文的人物性格的连贯程度和故事情节发展的合理程度。

【案例导引】

阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构成一个完整的故事。

After Twenty Years

The short storyAfter Twenty Yearsis set in New York on a cold, dark night.Most people had left work to go home, and this part of the city was quiet.A policeman who was checking the area saw a man outside a shop.He went up to the man and found he had a scar on his face.They had a chat and the man started to tell his story.

“Twenty years ago tonight,” said the man, “I dined here at ‘Big Joe’ Brady's with Jimmy Wells, my best chum, and the finest chap in the world.He and I were raised here in New York, just like two brothers, together.I was eighteen and Jimmy was twenty.The next morning I was to start for the West to make my fortune.You couldn't have dragged Jimmy out of New York; he thought it was the only place on earth.Well, we agreed that night that we would meet here again exactly twenty years from that date and time, no matter what our conditions might be or how long the distance might be.We figured that in twenty years each of us ought to have our destiny worked out and our fortunes made, whatever they were going to be.”

“It sounds pretty interesting,” said the policeman.“Rather a long time between meetings, though, it seems to me.Haven't you heard from your friend since you left?”

“Well, yes, for a time we corresponded,” said the other.“But after a year or two we lost track of each other.You see, the West is pretty big, and I kept hustling around over it.But I know Jimmy will meet me here if he's alive, for he always was the truest, staunchest old chap in the world.He'll never forget.I came a thousand miles to stand in this door tonight, and it's worth it if my old partner turns up.”

注意:续写词数应为150左右。

Paragraph 1:

The policeman turned out to be Jimmy.The scar told him it was Bob,his old friend,a man now wanted by the police._________________________________________________

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Paragraph 2:

Bob,now 58,stepped out of the jail,looking around.____________________________

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一、获取基本要素

一对曾经的好友鲍勃和吉米相约20 年后在纽约的一家餐厅见面。去西部打拼归来,鲍勃在约定好的时间和地点却等来了一位巡警。巡警小心地询问着鲍勃的情况,二人的对话由此展开。小说的标题为“二十年后”,暗指二十年后两位年少时的好友历经世事沧桑后的改变。本文的体裁为小说,第三人称视角的叙述方式能让作者突破时空的限制,直击主人公的内心世界。小说情节的安排极具戏剧化,内容主要以人物对话为主,对话简洁且口语化,其中多处运用反语和讽刺的表现手法,生动地塑造出吉米和鲍勃截然不同的性格,揭露人物在面临选择时展现出的真实且矛盾的人性。此处,本文巧妙地节选了前半部分,且给出了最后两段的首句,这使得结局耐人寻味。下面是小说的五大基本要素。

When did the story happen?Where did the story happen?Who are they?What did they do?Why was the man standing outside the shop?When Where Who What Why on a cold, dark night___________in New York, outside a shop________the policeman Jimmy and the scarred man Bob They were talking to each other._______He was waiting for his old friend, Jimmy.___

二、厘清故事情节

故事山是一种帮助学生了解故事结构的工具。 故事山能让学生在阅读文本后再次审视故事的人物、情节、事件,从而得到对文本更清晰的总体意识。

A.The man explained he went to the West___to make a fortune and his trust in Jim____my.B.The man talked about the promise he had___made with his best friend Jim___________my.C.The policeman asked further about their___corresponden________________________ce.D.A policeman saw a man with a scar on his___face standing outside a sh______________op.

三、剖析人物性格

仔细阅读文本,在原文中找出与主人公相关的细节描写,运用下面的九型人格理论图帮助我们描述人物,准确定位小说中主人公的主要性格类型,并据此判断主人公在后文面临选择时的决定。

_____Characters____the policeman__the man with a scar____Jimmy Wells Supporting details Adjectives Personality types_

Characters Supporting details Adjectives Personality typesimages/BZ_59_207_1729_508_2088.pngpatient;easy-going;a good listener The Mediator The Observer the policemanimages/BZ_59_219_2287_497_2671.pngThe Achiever the man with a scar 1.A policeman who was checking the area saw a man outside a shop.He went up to the man and found he had a scar on his face.They had a chat and the man started to tell his story.2.“It sounds pretty interesting,” said the policeman.“Rather a long time between meetings, though, it seems to me.Haven't________________you heard from your friend since you left?”1.“I was to start for the West to make my fortune.”2.“The West is pretty big, and I kept hustling around over it.”3.“We agreed that night that we would meet here again exactly twenty years from that date and time, no matter what our conditions might be or how long the distance might be.”4.“I came a thousand miles to stand in this door tonight, and it's worth it if my________________old partner turns up.”careful;cautious;observant;responsible ambitious;adventurous;determined;focused on making a fortune and being successful super loyal and faithful;devoted The Idealist

(续表)

四、做比较,猜结局

在判断出人物的性格后,我们可以将人物的性格进行比较,分析人物之间的关系,想象人物后续可能做出的选择,猜测结局。

Make a comparison between the policeman and Jimmy based on their personalities,and use the following questions to help you predict an ending.

1.What can you find out? Are they similar or different? How? What could be the relationship between them?

2.Would Jimmy keep the promise and come to meet the man?

3.If Jimmy is the policeman, what do you think he would choose between devotion to duty and loyalty to friendship?

Characters Adjectives________________Personality types__images/BZ_60_383_1992_661_2324.pngpatient; easy-going, a good listener careful; cautious; observant; responsible The Mediator The Observer The policemanimages/BZ_60_387_2430_656_2781.pngsuper loyal and faithful; devoted; true staunch; stubborn traditional; conservative The Idealist The Loyal Skeptic The Observer________Jimmy Wells

五、读首句,定情节

在依据人物性格预测故事可能的结局后,我们可以继续分析结尾两段的首句信息,以判断是否符合我们的猜测,并开始构思和创作结局。

1.Was Bob arrested in the end? Who might do this? Why?

2.What has Bob experienced over the past twenty years?

3.How would Bob react to the arrest?

4.What would happen to Bob after another twenty years? How would he feel? Would he meet someone?

六、品原著,做评价

在完成续写后,我们可以品味欧·亨利式的结尾,并与我们续写的内容进行对比和分析,判断两种结局是否符合原文中人物的性格,由此做出相应的评价。

Read the original ending and find out what actually happened.

Bob,I was at the appointed place on time.When you struck the match to light your cigar,I saw it was the face of the man wanted in Chicago.Somehow I couldn't do it myself,so I went around and got a plain clothes man to do the job.

Jimmy

1.What kind of ending is this? More than one answer will be suitable.

2.How do you like this one? Give your reasons.

参考范文

Paragraph 1:

The policeman turned out to be Jimmy.The scar told him it was Bob,his old friend,a man now wanted by the police.“Bob, it's me, Jimmy.I knew what you had done from the Chicago policeman,” Jimmy said, his voice trembling.Surprised and scared, Bob seemed to be at a loss.He didn't even know whether he should run or stay.Jimmy seemed to know what was going on in his mind, “Bob, you have been under arrest.Chicago is waiting for you.Don't worry.I will take care of your family,” Jimmy continued, putting his hand on Bob's shoulder.Bob looked into Jimmy's eyes.He knew it was time to surrender.

Paragraph 2:

Bob,now 58,stepped out of the jail,looking around.Nobody.After twenty years behind bars, he felt like an outcast to the city and everyone in it.Lost and helpless, he wandered aimlessly through the streets.Somehow, he arrived at the same old shop.In the dim light of a streetlamp, he noticed an old man there, sitting on a bench.“Bob,” the old man looked up.Although twenty years had passed, he could still recognize that face—Bob's face.“I'm here for our meeting.Welcome home, my best chum!”

【模拟导练】

阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构成一个完整的故事。

A vacation with my mother

I had an interesting childhood: It was filled with surprises and amusements, all because of my mother—loving, sweet, yet absent-minded and forgetful.One strange family trip we took when I was eleven tells a lot about her.

My two sets of grandparents lived in Colorado and North Dakota, and my parents decided to spend a few weeks driving to those states and seeing all the sights along the way.As the first day of our trip approached, David, my eight-year-old brother, and I unwillingly said goodbye to all of our friends.Who knew if we'd ever see them again? Finally, the moment of our departure arrived, and we loaded suitcases, books, games, camping equipment,and a tent into the car and bravely drove off.We bravely drove off again two hours later after we'd returned home to get the purse and traveler's checks Mom had forgotten.

David and I were always a little nervous when using gas station bathrooms if Mom was driving while Dad slept.“You stand outside the door and act as a lookout (瞭望员) while I go, and I'll stand outside the door and act as a lookout while you go.” I had terrible pictures in my mind, “Honey, where are the kids?” “What? Oh, I thought they were being awfully quiet.” We were never actually left behind in a strange city, but we weren't about to take any chances.

On the fourth or fifth night, we had trouble finding a hotel with a vacancy.After driving in vain for some time, Mom suddenly got a great idea: Why didn't we find a house with a likely-looking backyard and ask if we could set up a tent there? David and I became nervous.To our great relief, Dad turned down the idea.Mom never could understand our objections.If a strange family showed up on her front doorstep, Mom would have been delighted.She thinks everyone in the world is as nice as she is.We finally found a vacancy in the next town.

注意:续写词数应为150左右。

Paragraph 1:

The next day we remembered the brand-new tent we had brought with us.____________

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Paragraph 2:

We drove through several states and saw lots of great sights along the way.___________

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【评价导思】

1.在续写前,我是否能定位文章要素和厘清故事情节?我是否能在阅读原文时做好标注,帮助自己准确地运用形容词描述人物性格?

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2.在续写时,我是否能理解并运用九型人格理论图,依据人物的细节描写判定人物性格,由此推测人物可能的后续选择和决定,并有逻辑地预测和构思出符合人物性格的结局?

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3.在续写后,我是否能基于自己的创作成果,对比并赏析原作,品味欧·亨利式的结尾,提升续写中人物性格的连贯性和故事情节发展的合理性?

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