Flats to Rent in London
Cowbridge Lane， Barking
￡1，000 per month/￡231 per week
Primelodge Estates are pleased to offer for letting this newly redecorated 1-bedroom flat on the ground floor located minutes from Barking station and local facilities.
Tel： 020 8012 5113
Pierhead Lock， Canary Wharf， London， E14
￡1，980 per month/￡457 per week
Long let. Located next to the Thames and with 2 circular balconies to relax upon， this wonderful 2-bedroom flat is good-sized and has natural light throughout. Benefits include a modern kitchen， a utility room （杂用间） and a bathroom.
Tel： 020 8012 6728
Boulevard Drive， Colindale， London， NW9
￡3，467 per month/￡800 per week
Zero deposit available. Long let. This amazing 3-bedroom apartment is located on the 7th floor of a modern apartment building with comfortable accommodation throughout， a large private balcony and access to the gym and swimming pool.
Tel： 020 8012 6803
Oakwood Court， 101 Pinner Road， Harrow， HAI
￡4，290 per month/￡1，100 per week
A well presented， newly decorated and bright 4-bedroom flat in this small， well looked after block. It is located by a park with many trees， where you can see many citizens running along the park paths when the sun rises. The flat offers free parking， too.
Tel： 020 8012 2188.
1. Where is the flat that has an easy access to a station？
A. In Cowbridge Lane. B. In Pierhead Lock.
C. In Boulevard Drive. D. In Oakwood Court.
2. What do the 2-bedroom flat and the 3-bedroom flat have in common？
A. Both offer free parking. B. Both require no deposit.
C. Both are newly redecorated. D. Both can be rented for a long time.
3. Which number should you call if you like exercising outdoors？
A. 020 8012 6728. B. 020 8012 5113. C. 020 8012 2188. D. 020 8012 6803.
A 23-year-old British woman has invented a product that she hopes will one day take the place of single-use plastic. The new product is made by combining fishing waste and algae （藻類）.
Lucy Hughes created the material， called MarinaTex， for her final year project at the University of Sussex. She continued her research after she left the university.
MarinaTex is edible， meaning it can be eaten without danger. Hughes says it is also strong and stable. But unlike plastic， MarinaTex breaks down in four to six weeks under normal conditions and does not pollute the soil.
The inventor said she is concerned about the growing amounts of plastics in ocean waters. She noted one report that there would be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans by the year 2050.
Hughes also was investigating ways to reduce the amount of waste from the fishing industry. The industry produces an estimated 50 million tons of waste worldwide each year， UN officials say.
Hughes told Reuters that she was “trying to work out how I could use the waste stream and add value to that waste.” Examining fish parts left over from processing helped to give her the idea for a material that was useful and did not harm the environment.
Inventor James Dyson said that MarinaTex is “stronger， safer and much more sustainable” than the plastic polyethylene. It is also easier to break down than other possible replacement products for polyethylene， the material that single-use plastic bags are made of.
Hughes will receive about $41，000 in prize money as the first place winner of the James Dyson Award. She told Reuters that she plans to use the money to better develop the product and ways to mass produce it.
4. When did Lucy Hughes create MarinaTex？
A. At university. B. After graduation.
C. Before going to university. D. After winning the James Dyson Award.
5. What can we learn about MarinaTex according to Paragraph 3？
A. It can be made into food. B. It is environmentally friendly.
C. It is a type of plastics. D. It exists for a long time in nature.
6. What helped to give Hughes the idea for MarinaTex？
A. Observing the process of fishing. B. Studying different parts of a fish.
C. Checking waste from the fishing industry. D. Examining left-over fish parts after cooking.
7. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear？
A. Entertainment. B. Education. C. Lifestyle. D. Technology.
Yellow is usually the color of happy， joyful emotions. But according to a new study， not all people associate sunshine with good atmosphere.
To find out what factors might play a role， researchers tested a new hypothesis （假設）： What if people’s physical surroundings affect their feelings about certain colors？ For instance， if someone lived in cold and rainy Finland， would they feel differently about the color yellow from someone who lived near the Sahara Desert？ The researchers looked at color-emotion data from an ongoing international survey of 6，625 people in 55 countries. The survey asks participants to rate 12 colors on how closely they are associated with feelings including joy， pride， fear and shame.
The team looked only at the data for yellow， and analyzed how different factors—including hours of sunshine， hours of daylight， and amounts of rainfall—lined up with the emotions people reported for the color. The two best predictors of how people felt about yellow were the annual amount of rainfall， and how far they lived from the equator （赤道）， the team reports this month in the Journal of Environmental Psychology.
The farther someone lived from the equator， the more likely they were to appreciate some bright colors—in Egypt， the likelihood of yellow being associated with joy was just 5.7%， whereas in rather cold Finland it was 87.7%. In the United States， with its moderate climate and amber （黃褐色） waves of grain， people’s yellow-joy association levels were between 60% and 70%.
The team also checked whether associations changed with the season—whether， for example， people in a certain country liked yellow more in the winter than they did in the summer. The researchers found that opinions about color remained fairly constant year-round—even when the weather changed， the data on yellow-joy associations were as good as gold.
8. To test the hypothesis， researchers surveyed people ___ .
A. in Finland B. in the United States
C. from different countries D. near the Sahara Desert
9. What may most affect the emotions associated with yellow？
A. The annual amount of rainfall. B. Hours of daylight.
C. Hours of sunshine. D. Seasons in a year.
10. Who are more likely to appreciate bright colors？
A. People living in warm areas. B. People growing up in Egypt.
C. People living near desert. D. People living far from the equator.
11. What is the text mainly about？
A. Yellow is the color of happiness and joy.
B. Researchers did a survey on the color yellow.
C. Different people have different emotions to the color yellow.
D. A study shows the connection between emotion and yellow can vary.
“Hope has proved a powerful predictor of outcome in every study we’ve done so far，” said Dr Snyder， a psychologist.
In research with 3，920 college students， Dr Snyder found that the level of hope among freshmen at the beginning of their first term was a more accurate predictor of their college grades than were their SAT scores or their grade point averages in high school. “Students with high hope set themselves higher goals and know how to work to attain them，” Dr Snyder said， “When you compare students with equal learning ability and past school achievements， what sets them apart is hope.”
In seeking a way to assess hope scientifically， Dr Snyder went beyond the usual belief that hope is merely the sense that everything will turn out all right. “This idea is not concrete enough; it fails to clarify two key components of hope，” Dr Snyder said. “Having hope means believing you have both the will and the way to accomplish your goals， whatever they may be.”
Despite the wisdom in the old saying “Where there’s a will， there’s a way”， Dr Snyder has found that the two are not necessarily connected. In a study of people from 18 to 70 years old， Dr Snyder discovered： only about 40% of people are hopeful in the technical sense of believing they typically have the energy and means to accomplish their goals; about 20% of the people believed in their ability to find the means to achieve their goals， but said they had little will to do so; another 20% have the opposite pattern， saying they had the energy to motivate themselves but little confidence that they would find the means; the rest had little hope at all， reporting that they typically had neither the will nor the way.
“It’s not enough just to have the wish for something，” said Dr Snyder. “You need the means， too. On the other hand， all the skills to solve a problem won’t help without the willpower to do it.”
12. What does Dr Snyder think can best predict a freshman’s academic performance？
A. His SAT scores. B. His school grades.
C. His level of hope. D. His family background.
13. What does the underlined word “them” in Paragraph 2 refer to？
A. College grades. B. Higher goals.
C. Past school achievements. D. Average grade points.
14. What did Dr Snyder say about the old saying “Where there’s a will， there’s a way”？
A. It is quite realistic for most people. B. It is not inspiring to students.
C. It is useful in the old days. D. It is not always true in reality.
15. What can be a suitable title for the text？
A. No Pains， No Gains B. Hope Is Recognized as Key to Success
C. Will Gets It Going D. Where There’s a Will， There’s a Way
The online business model is changing on a satisfaction-first basis. It doesn’t matter if someone recommended you an app， nothing beats getting to try out the app first before deciding on whether or not to apply for the service.
Listen to Rhapsody’s large music library and get the option to download and listen to songs or even full-length albums when you’re offline. At the moment， this service is available in 32 countries only. Remember that you’ll need to cancel within the free trial period to avoid being charged for your first month.
[Trial period—14 days | After trial—$9.99/month | Try now]
Need to save photos for your presentations and artworks？ Go to Bigstock to check out their collection from top artists and photographers around the world. Choose from over 30 million photos， and illustrations （插圖）， with 75，000 images coming in every new week. All you need to start your free trial is your email address.
[Trial period—7 days | After trial—$79/month | Try now]
If you are drowning in paperwork， perhaps it is time to use Canvas and transfer all your paperwork online. Digitalize your work orders， forms etc. so that they can be filled up and completed right on any mobile device. This makes it easy to create， edit， gain valuable data and send it to the people who need it in seconds.
[Trial period—30 days | After trial—$13/month | Try now]
If you have ever lost your phone， you know how important it is to backup （备份） all your important documents， notes， contacts and other personal details. Get cloud-to-cloud protection of up to 3 PB of data with Backupify. You can backup your data for Google apps， Office 365， various social media sites and even Salesforce.
[Trial period—15 days | After trial—$3/month | Try now]
To learn more about the Apps above， Click Here.
1. Who is more likely to use the app Canvas？
A. A secretary. B. A photographer. C. An artist. D. A musician.
2. What can be of some help to save photos？
A. Bigstock and Canvas. B. Backupify and Bigstock.
C. Rhapsody and Backupify. D. Rhapsody and Canvas.
3. What do the apps above have in common？
A. They offer free entertainment services. B. Users will access them via email accounts.
C. They can help improve users’ work skills. D. Users can try them without paying.
Sandi Patty’s name has been synonymous （同义的） with Gospel music because of her singing ability since she released her first album in 1979.
Patty’s newest book， The Voice， takes a deep dive into parts of her life she’s kept private for years. Surprisingly， The Voice is not primarily concerned with Patty’s singing voice. Patty was always a talented singer. However， she struggled to find her inner voice and speak up for herself. “I was a shy kid. Words were hard for me，” Patty said.
One of the reasons why Patty found it so difficult to use her voice was a traumatic childhood experience. At age six， she was abused by a friend， an experience she opened up for the first time in the book.
She is sharing the story of her experience now， hoping it will help other people feel less alone. “Feeling alone keeps everybody silent about the tough times in our lives， so we think we’re the only ones，” Patty said. She wrote in The Voice that she felt like it was her job to make everyone feel better.
Friendships were vital for helping Patty find the courage to speak up. They reminded her that she didn’t need to make others feel better because the people she loved didn’t doubt she cared for them.
Friends and family were extremely important for helping Patty confront （處理） another struggle she faced—shame. She felt unpleasant for insecurities about her weight and her divorce. “I’ve heard it explain that guilt tells us we have done something wrong and shame says we are wrong，” Patty said.
“I want people to know that their stories and their voices matter，” Patty said. “We have to figure out a way to take our pain away and put it where it needs to be， without letting it guide our lives. Pain is a part of our story. It describes us， but it doesn’t need to define us.”
4. What does Patty’s newest book focus on？
A. Her singing ability. B. Her dream of success.
C. Her advice on singing well. D. Her personal experiences.
5. What does the underlined word “traumatic” in Paragraph 3 mean？
A. Bitter. B. Relaxing. C. Valuable. D. Practical.
6. How did Patty’s friends influence her？
A. By helping her get rid of loneliness. B. By accompanying her around.
C. By inspiring her to act bravely. D. By helping her find out problems.
7. What does Patty mainly want to show in the last paragraph？
A. The need to be independent. B. The importance of removing our pain.
C. The necessity of accepting our life. D. The meaning of learning about ourselves.
The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful， or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness， or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person’s needs.
Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communication among people， just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore， when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and suddenly stops， what maybe implied （暗示） is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures， silence is a call for reflection.
Other cultures may use silence in other ways， particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example， Russian， French， and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic under discussion. However， Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use， persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect， particularly to an elder or a person in authority.
Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be experiencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.
8. What does the author say about silence in conversations？
A. It implies rudeness. B. It promotes friendship.
C. It is culture-specific. D. It is content-based.
9. Who might regard silence as a call for careful thought？
A. The Chinese. B. The French.
C. The Mexicans. D. The Russians.
10. What does the author advise nurses to do about silence？
A. Let it continue as the patient pleases. B. Break it while treating patients.
C. Evaluate its harm to patients. D. Make use of its healing effects.
11. What is the best title for the text？
A. Sound and Silence B. What It Means to Be Silent
C. Silence to Native Americans D. Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold
Being young is associated with all the good things in life—beauty， hope， and energy. But youth also has negative associations—impulsiveness， trouble-making， and irresponsibility. This negative side seems to be what society focuses on more， which is why young people have mostly been considered as idle and difficult.
But when it comes to Generation Z—those born between 1996 and 2010—this stereotype doesn’t seem to apply anymore.
In Japan， for example， Gen Z-ers are less likely to buy on impulse， but take into consideration more a product’s true value. “They’re looking at the companies， not just the products，” Masahiko Uotani， CEO of Japanese cosmetics company Shiseido， told Bloomberg. “They’re asking， ‘Are they really delivering value to the society？ Are they promoting diversity and inclusion？’”
Gen Z-ers are also more grounded than we’ve expected them to be. According to a recent survey by Bank of America， more than half of young adults aged between 18 and 23 said they were planning to buy a house within five years. And they’re not just saying it—they are willing to make sacrifices for it， including getting a second job and saving money for down payment instead of spending it on a vacation.
“Despite their young age， this group is pragmatic and actively planning for their future，” D. Steve Boland， head of Consumer Lending at Bank of America， told USA Today. “They have a clear vision （设想） how they are willing to help themselves in order to make it happen.”
Social issues are also at the center of concern of Gen Z-ers， who take themselves as a changing force of the world. In India， for example， young people who have just reached the voting age are eager to vote for a new leader who is capable of solving problems that matter the most to them， including pollution， unemployment and women’s safety.
As a Gen Z-er yourself， what is your plan for the future？
12. What does the underlined part “this stereotype” in Paragraph 2 refer to？
A. Being young is good. B. Gen Z-ers are born after 1996.
C. The traditional poor impressions on the youth. D. The associations with young people.
13. What can we infer about Gen Z-ers in Japan from Paragraph 3？
A. They are picky. B. They are self-centered.
C. They care little about products. D. They are wise when shopping.
14. What is Steve Boland’s attitude to Gen Z-ers？
A. Approving. B. Negative. C. Indifferent. D. Critical.
15. Which of the following best describes Gen Z-ers？
A. Confident and independent. B. Visionary and responsible.
C. Hard-working and down-to-earth. D. Active and creative.
The Oxford English Dictionary is available by subscription （訂阅） to institutions and individuals. We are pleased to offer annual individual OED subscriptions at a reduced rate of $90 in the US （usually $295） or $122 for the rest of the world （usually $294） until May 31， 2021.
An individual subscription to the OED online offers unlimited access to more than 1，000 years of the English language. To subscribe online and take advantage of our offer， please visit our personal subscription shop and use the promotional code OED90.
Details about individual OED subscriptions：
·Available for personal use only.
·A single user name and password that must not be shared.
·Users must sign in each time they wish to access the service.
·Users can access the service from any computer.
Love the OED， but can’t commit to a full year subscription？ You can also enjoy access to the OED online on a monthly basis at a low rate of $29.
* Monthly and annual subscriptions are available to individuals by prepaid subscription for personal use only.
Librarians can contact local Sales Rep for sales and pricing queries （询问） and to discuss their content development needs， or register for a free institutional trial.
For more information， please contact our service team Monday—Friday， 9 am—5 pm.
Tel： 1 800 334 4249 ext 6484
Fax： 1 212 726 6476
1. How much should an annual subscriber in the US pay now？
A. $122. B. $172. C. $205. D. $295.
2. What is required for an individual subscriber？
A. Paying in advance for a year. B. Using a fixed computer to log on.
C. Changing the passwords regularly. D. Signing in each time to access the service.
3. What is available only to institutional subscribers？
A. A free trial. B. A low price. C. A promotional code. D. 7/24 customer service.
Before breakfast， two young people head down to the woods， struggling a little with the heavy bag of food for the pigs. “Scatter them in different piles，” says the farm staff member.
The teenagers are part of a group from a London secondary school who are staying at Jamie Fielden’s farm， one of a number of “care farms” providing a type of eco-therapy （生態治疗）. The pupils brought here have been chosen by their teachers： 14-year-old Sofia， for example， has a difficult home life， and George， 14， is extremely quiet.
Most of them have never been to the countryside before. For five days， they get up early， eat wholesome food and do various chores dependent on the season. It is summer and they are pulling up coriander （a plant） from the vegetable beds and feeding animals.
Besides farmwork， the young people have group sessions with the farm phychotherapist （精神治疗医师） who teaches them techniques for dealing with difficult situations. They can do horse-whispering with her， one-to-one therapy making use of one of the farm horses. Phones and sweets are banned， as part of the focus on creating a calm， supportive atmosphere.
And the young people seem to be thriving （茁壯成长）. Aaron， a 12-year-old with serious attendance issues， is clearly taken with the horse whispering. “I feel as if the horse is calm and I am calm. I had to work out how to speak calmly to make her do what I wanted.”
A classmate， Hasan， describes a similar feeling， “I expected to be really bored here， but as soon as we arrived it was fantastic.” Hasan has a complicated home life and needs support.
A week after the pupils arrive back at school in west London， teachers report a difference in behavior. There is no doubt that they will continue to send pupils to the farm in years to come.
4. What do pupils at Jamie Fielden’s farm have in common？
A. They are animal lovers. B. They prefer country life to city life.
C. They have learning difficulties. D. They are troubled by certain problems.
5. How does the “care farm” function？
A. By encouraging fine teamwork. B. By turning to heavy physical work.
C. By combining farmwork with therapy. D. By building close personal relationships.
6. Why does the author mention Aaron and Hasan？
A. To explain horse whispering. B. To describe the beauty of the farm.
C. To show the effectiveness of the care farm. D. To introduce the pupils’ daily routine.
7. What does the text mainly talk about？
A. The power of nature. B. Behavioral problems.
C. Some devoted care workers. D. A special kind of farm.
A study has found that middle-aged and older adults who live in greener neighborhoods have a decreased risk of developing metabolic syndrome （代谢综合征） such as obesity， hypertension and high blood sugar.
The study， published in Environmental Pollution， was conducted by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health （ISGlobal）. It differed from previous studies on the health benefits of green spaces in that it examined all of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome together collectively rather than as individual components. Having metabolic syndrome increases a person’s risk for heart disease， stroke and type 2 diabetes， according to the National Heart， Lung， and Blood Institute.
The study from ISGlobal examined data from clinical examinations of over 6，000 British adults who were between 45 and 69 years old when the study began. The data was derived from four examinations participants went through between 1997 and 2013 that included blood analyses， blood pressure and measurements of weight. “These findings suggest that long-term exposure to green spaces can play an important role in preventing metabolic syndrome as a whole，” according to a press release published by ISGlobal.
The correlation between nearness to green spaces and better health could be associated with the expanded opportunities for physical recreation and lower exposure to air pollution， according to Carmen de Keijzer， ISGlobal researcher and principal author of the study.
Female subjects were more likely than males to exhibit the study’s association between living in greener neighborhoods and having fewer metabolic symptoms. “Women tend to spend more time in their residential neighborhood， which could explain this gender difference，” de Keijzer said. “We need greener cities if we want healthier cities，” he added.
8. What can we learn about the study from the first two paragraphs？
A. It was a joint effort of several institutes. B. It was the first of its kind in decades.
C. It involved both the middle-aged and the older. D. It examined symptoms one by one.
9. What does the underlined word “derived” in Paragraph 3 mean？
A. Separated. B. Arrived. C. Gained. D. Demanded.
10. Why do women have fewer metabolic symptoms？
A. They have a lower risk of heart disease. B. They live a greener life.
C. They have a healthier lifestyle. D. They stay more where they live.
11. What can be a suitable title for the text？
A. Living in Greener and Healthier Cities
B. Women Having Fewer Metabolic Symptoms
C. Metabolic Syndrome Increasing Heart Disease
D. Greener Neighborhoods， Fewer Metabolic Symptoms
Singapore researchers say they have developed a form of electronic skin that can create a sense of touch. They hope their invention will give people with prosthetic hands （假肢） the ability to identify different objects.
The skin device measures 1 square centimeter. The system contains 100 small sensors that attempt to recreate things like texture （質地）， temperature and even pain. The researchers call the device Asynchronous Coded Electronic Skin （ACES）， which can process information faster than the human’s nervous system. Machine learning methods trained the device to recognize 20 to 30 different textures. It can even correctly read Braille letters （布拉耶盲文） most of the time.
The system does not require the users’ movement to work. They just need to slide to feel texture. But in this case the skin， with just a single touch， is able to detect textures of different roughness.
A demonstration showed that the device could identify the difference between a soft ball and a solid plastic one. “When you lose your sense of touch， you essentially become numb and prosthetic users face that problem，” said Benjamin Tee， leader of the research team. “So by recreating an artificial version of the skin for their prosthetic devices， they can hold a hand and feel the warmth and feel that it is soft.”
Tee said his idea for the device came from the movie Star Wars， when character Luke Skywalker loses his right hand and it is replaced with a robotic one. In the film， the new hand is able to experience touch sensations just like the real one.
The artificial skin technology is still going through experiments and development. But Tee said there had already been a lot of interest in the system， especially from the medical community. Tee said similar inventions that his team has developed include see-through skin that can repair itself when torn and a material for wearable electronic devices that gives off light.
12. What can we learn about the artificial skin in Paragraph 2？
A. It is sensitive to high temperature. B. It reacts faster than our nervous system.
C. It can recognize different objects. D. It helps users memorize Braille letters.
13. What can be inferred from Benjamin Tee’s words？
A. The artificial skin feels like a real thing. B. People with the artificial skin feel warm.
C. People warmly welcome the skin device. D. He is sympathetic towards the prosthetic users.
14. What inspired Benjamin Tee to create the artificial skin？
A. The desire to help those in need. B. The wishes of the disabled.
C. A dream of creating new things. D. A scene from a famous movie.
15. Which word can best describe the artificial skin technology？
A. Impractical. B. Stable. C. Promising. D. Challenging.
The Young Scholars Program
The University of Maryland’s Young Scholars Program is a perfect summer camp for academically talented teenagers who want to earn college credits， pursue academic interests or discover college life at the University of Maryland. The program is challenging and rewarding. Students have the opportunity to show that they can be successful in a university environment.
During three weeks of exploration， teens preview the university experience， study with students who share similar interests and communicate with the best teachers of the University of Maryland in a dynamic and challenging classroom environment. Students can have trips to nearby Washington DC and enjoy movie nights and activities at the student union （學生活动中心）. Seminars featuring speakers in academic fields further enrich the learning experience.
The Young Scholars Program offers college courses that are at the cutting edge （前沿） of theory， thought and technology. Classes generally meet every day from Monday to Friday. The program is a great introduction to the University of Maryland， and participants can benefit from the University of Maryland’s vast resources， including libraries， computers and instructional labs.
Upon program completion， teens will go home with better preparations for the college experience—both academically and socially. In addition， students earn three college credits that post to the University of Maryland transcript （成绩单）.
The application process includes submission of the application， high school transcript and a letter of recommendation.
Mailing address： The University of Maryland College Park
For more information， call 3014057762.
1. What is the benefit of joining in the program？
A. Developing various interests. B. Learning from the best students.
C. Earning enough college credits. D. Experiencing college life in advance.
2. What can teens do in the program？
A. Find a part-time job in the library. B. Travel to Washington DC regularly.
C. Attend a meeting for academic discussion. D. Join the students’ union.
3. How many days will students spend attending classes in the program？
A. 5 days. B. 15 days. C. 21 days. D. 30 days
Grays Peak in Colorado rises 14，278 feet above sea level， too high for trees to grow toward the top， yet there are plenty of bushes and rocks.
It was August 2018， and Wedelstedt， 56， was on her way back down the path with three friends. A storm was coming， and they were anxious to get off the mountain. When they approached a rocky drop of a couple of feet， Wedelstedt decided to jump over it. She landed on her left leg. Then she heard the snap （咔嚓聲）.
Every step after that was great pain. Before long， she had to stop. As one friend ran down to get help， a number of other hikers， all strangers， attempted to help Wedelstedt down the narrow path by walking on either side of her to support her weight， but that proved slow and dangerous.
Finally， one hiker， Matt， asked her， “How do you feel about a fireman’s carry？” Before she knew it， he had lifted her over his shoulder. “Now， I’m not tiny，” says Wedelstedt， a former college basketball star. Matt clearly couldn’t carry her all the way down by himself. So six hikers and one of her friends took turns carrying her while she tried to make light of a difficult situation. Three hours and two rock-strewn miles later， this human conveyor belt finally met the doctors， who took Wedelstedt to the hospital.
She has mostly recovered from her hike， but Wedelstedt knows she’ll never shake one thing from that day： the memory of the band of strangers who came to her rescue. “I’m still in awe，” says Wedelstedt.
4. What happened to Wedelstedt while climbing down the mountain？
A. She was caught in a heavy storm. B. She injured her leg.
C. She was blocked by rocks and bushes. D. She got lost in the mountain.
5. How did Matt help Wedelstedt？
A. By taking her directly to the hospital. B. By asking for help.
C. By carrying her down the mountain. D. By giving her first aid.
6. What does Wedelstedt think of the band of strangers？
A. Respectful. B. Experienced. C. Sympathetic. D. Tolerant.
7. What is the best title for the text？
A. Narrow Paths B. Lifelong Friendship C. Dangerous Hikes D. Peak Performance
Goldfish have pretty boring lives， so maybe it’s a good thing they can only concentrate for nine seconds！ But according to a new research， humans are becoming like goldfish. Our attention span （時长） is getting shorter... and it’s all because of technology.
“We move quickly from one site to another on the web，” says Doctor Ted Selker， a computer scientist from Massachusetts， “and we are losing the ability to concentrate.” With millions of websites to choose from， the attention span of the average Internet user is just seconds. There are other digital distractions too： e-mail， instant messaging and quickie movies on websites.
Some people are worried about the effect on young people. “You need time to understand and think about what you read，” says Julia Wood， from London. “Young people search the net all the time and their brains become full of useless information but there is no time to make sense of it. I am trying to persuade my pupils to read more books， so that they concentrate on one subject for longer.”
Other teachers are trying more unusual methods to improve students’ concentration. Anne Savan， from Wales， was so worried about her students that she started playing Mozart during her science lessons. She said that it had an amazing effect： “The music made them calmer， and their concentration was much better.”
But not everyone believes that there is a problem. Ray Cole， an educational psychologist said， “On the web， young people learn to make quick decisions about what is and isn’t worth reading. They might look at five unhelpful websites very quickly， before stopping and reading a sixth useful website more carefully. In a world with so much information available， this is an important skill.”
8. Why does the author mention “goldfish”？
A. To analyze data. B. To introduce the topic.
C. To settle problems. D. To suggest a way out.
9. What may cause a shorter attention span according to Dr Ted Selker？
A. Skipping on the Internet. B. Making quick decisions.
C. Reading in traditional ways. D. Digesting too much information.
10. What will help students overcome a short attention span？
A. Receiving e-mails. B. Texting messages.
C. Reading more books. D. Watching quickie movies.
11. What is Ray Cole’s attitude towards looking through websites quickly？
A. Cautious. B. Doubtful. C. Ambiguous. D. Supportive.
For many people， being on the job might just sound like a picnic compared to a day at home filled with housework， meals and childcare. Even for those with a happy family life， home can sometimes feel more taxing than work.
In a new study， researchers at Penn State University found significantly and consistently lower levels of cortisol （皮質醇） released in response to stress， in a majority of subjects when they were at work compared to when they were at home. This was true for both men and women， and parents and people without children.
Both men and women showed less stress at work. But women were more likely to report feeling happier there. Men were more likely to feel happier at home. Experts say there are other reasons why work is less stressful than home for many. “Paid work is more valued in society，” says Sarah Damaske， the lead researcher on the study. “Household work is boring and not particularly rewarding.”
We get better at our job with time and the increased competence means less stress and more rewards. Yet none of us， no matter how long we’ve been doing it， ever truly feels like an expert at parenting or even at marriage.
The support and friendship of coworkers also offer stress relief. At home， meanwhile， stress spreads and accumulates quickly. “That’s the reason why most housewives wish they were the bread earners，” Dr Damaske says.
Much of the advice to families and couples includes the warning to leave work stress at the office and even to change our mindset from work to home， for example， a walk around the block. The recent findings， though， suggest our home life， not our attitude， might be due for some change.
12. What does the underlined word “taxing” in Paragraph 1 mean？
A. Stressful. B. Cheerful. C. Worthwhile. D. Rewarding.
13. What did the study suggest according to Paragraph 2？
A. Men felt better at work. B. Women felt they had less time.
C. Women were easier to feel happier. D. Most people felt more stress at home.
14. What do most people think of work at the office？
A. It is competitive. B. It improves ability.
C. It can’t relieve stress. D. It doesn’t always pay off.
15. According to the recent findings， what should we change to solve the problem mentioned？
A. Our attitude. B. Our mindset.
C. Our home life. D. Our working style.
Places to Spend Christmas in Canada
Quebec City would be a great place to spend the holidays， with stone streets， soft white snow， and some of the most historic and striking architecture in Canada. And there’s a lot going on in the capital of La Belle Province， including an authentic German Christmas market where you can drink hot wine and look for gifts， and the chance to meet Santa Claus himself at Fairmont Le Chateau Frontenac Hotel.
St John’s， Newfoundland
In St John’s， Newfoundland， people would disguise （偽装） themselves in whatever small objects they could find in their homes and show up on their neighbor’s doorsteps singing， dancing and celebrating—and not removing their masks until the neighbors correctly guessed their identities. This fun and festive tradition lives on with an annual Christmas festival， complete with workshops and a big parade that shows these simple disguises.
Niagara Falls， Ontario
The illumination （照明） of the magnificent waterfalls is part of Niagara Falls’ annual Winter Festival of Lights， which sees more than three million lights lighted throughout the city. There are also weekly fireworks over the falls during the whole festival， and a number of other festive events， including musicals， shopping fairs and concerts.
There are few bigger thrills than being a kid at Christmas， especially if you live in Saskatoon. A recent study by the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management found that Saskatoon has the highest number of candy and toy stores， in the country， and a very good probability of having snow on December 25. It’s the perfect combination for a magical Christmas！ Grown-ups will also appreciate the booming food scene.
1. Where can you go if you are interested in historic buildings？
A. Quebec City. B. St John’s. C. Niagara Falls. D. Saskatoon.
2. What is special about Niagara Falls during Christmas？
A. Market. B. Wine. C. Light. D. Snow.
3. Who will be more likely to feel excited at Christmas in Saskatoon？
A. Babies. B. Children. C. Grown-ups. D. Senior citizens.
Last month， Gloria Scott， 72， called John Kinney to fix a ceiling light， but he soon discovered that the broken light was the least of her problems.
“Last week， I met a nice old woman who lives all alone in Woburn. She has no Internet or cell phone. When sparks started shooting out of her light fixture， she went to a neighbor， who gave her my number. When I arrived at her house I discovered that the electrical system was in very bad shape. Half her lights were out， she had no stove， and her refrigerator was plugged into an extension cord. I fixed her immediate electrical hazards （危險） and got her lights and air conditioning on. When all the lights came on， I saw her ceilings were falling apart， that her kitchen sink was broken， and that the place was dirty. She told me that animals often got in the house. She has no family， and money is tight.”
Kinney returned to her home and started working. He also started a Facebook page titled “Nice old lady needs help” where he called on other tradespeople （技工） to join him.
They’ve been at it for about a month now， putting in all new electrical equipment， new windows and walls and ceilings. Almost everything is getting replaced， from the backyard lawn to the front porch steps. The whole town of Woburn is pitching in. People without specific trade skills are showing up with shovels and rakes， sending gift baskets and purchasing meals for the volunteers.
So far， Kinney has raised more than $100，000 to help pay for materials. Over 2，000 people have donated to the good cause.
Kinney has since launched a Facebook group named “Gloria’s Gladiators”. It consists of professional tradesmen and volunteers that can be called upon to help out any elderly person in need. He said he would like to see chapters of Gloria’s Gladiators across the country helping seniors in similar situations.
4. What does Paragraph 2 mainly talk about？
A. Kinney got to know Gloria accidentally. B. Kinney was experienced as an electrician.
C. Gloria was living in bad conditions. D. Gloria was in danger because of electrical problems.
5. How did the tradespeople in Woburn react to Kinney’s appeal？
A. Coldly. B. Doubtfully. C. Cautiously. D. Enthusiastically.
6. What does the underlined phrase “pitching in” in Paragraph 4 mean？
A. Expanding. B. Celebrating. C. Complaining. D. Contributing.
7. Who will benefit most from the group “Gloria’s Gladiators”？
A. The old. B. The homeless. C. The disabled. D. The lonely people.
Long before they found their way into living rooms around the world， computers were the belongings of institutes and corporate headquarters. After all， the huge and heavy mainframes of the 1960s might easily fill a room of their own.
The invention of the microprocessor—Intel’s 4004 was the first to be made commercially available in 1971—changed all that. Manufacturers were finally able to produce machines small enough to fit into customers’ homes. Yet， the question was： Could firms persuade people to actually want one there？
The story of how computers enter our homes is not one of technology， but one of marketing and design， according to writer and journalist Alex Wiltshire， whose new book， Home Computers： 100 Icons that Defined a Digital Generation， tells the industry’s early history through its most influential models. “The technology was already in existence，” he said in a phone interview. “But what was important was the idea of putting it into a form that could be bought and easily used.”
The very first models in Wiltshire’s book were aimed at hobbyists and industry insiders. These so-called “kit” computers performed only basic functions. But the arrival of user-friendly machines like the CPET 2001 and Apple Ⅱ in 1977 were signs of a turning point.
“There was a massive change around the idea of ‘What if these computers were packaged， presented and designed in a form that anyone could use？’—that they wouldn’t require people to learn computer languages， or to devote several rooms of their houses，” Wiltshire said. “What if there were these objects that people could buy off the shelf and just plug into their TVs？ That was the moment that the idea of a ‘home computer’ was born， and it was absolutely down to design.”
8. What can we learn from Alex’s book？
A. Technology for home computers was not mature.
B. Marketing and design counted most for computers.
C. The home computer industry has a long history.
D. The writer’s idea was put in the design of home computers.
9. What is the difference between kit computers and CPET 2001？
A. Kit computers could handle complex operation. B. CPET 2001 had a better outlook design.
C. CPET 2001 was easier to use for common people. D. Kit computers were more environmentally friendly.
10. The top idea of a “home computer” is to design it to be ___ .
A. like a TV B. suitable for families
C. easier to use and keep D. helpful to learn languages
11. What is Alex’s attitude towards the change of home computer？
A. Objective. B. Negative. C. Carefree. D. Skeptical.
University of Pennsylvania researchers say that for the first time they have linked social media use to increases in depression and loneliness. The idea that social media is anything but social when it comes to mental health has been talked about for years， but not many studies have managed to actually link the two. To do that， Penn researchers， led by psychologist Melissa Hunt， designed a study that focused on WeChat， Snapchat and Instagram.
The study was conducted with 143 participants， who before they began， completed a mood survey and sent along photos of their battery screens， showing how often they were using their phones to access social media. “We set out to do a much more complete study which attempts to imitate real life，” Hunt said.
The study divided the participants into two groups： The first group was allowed to maintain their normal social media habits. The other， the control group， was restricted to 10 minutes per day on social media. The restrictions were put in place for three weeks and then the participants returned and were tested for outcomes such as fear of missing out， anxiety， depression and loneliness.
The results showed a very clear link between social media use and increased levels of depression and loneliness. “Using less social media than you normally do would lead to significant decreases in both depression and loneliness，” Hunt said.
Social media invites what Hunt calls “downward social comparison”. “When you’re online， it can sometimes seem that everyone else is cooler and having more fun and included in more things and you’re left out，” Hunt said. And that’s just generally discouraging. “Every minute you spend online is a minute you are not doing your work or not meeting a friend for dinner or having a deep conversation with your roommate. And these real life activities are the ones that can encourage self-esteem and self-worth，” Hunt added.
“People are on their devices， and that’s not going to change，” she said. But as in life， a bit of control goes a long way.
12. Before the study was conducted， the participants completed a survey to ___ .
A. imitate people’s real life B. link loneliness to depression
C. show their use of social media D. prove social media is important
13. The study showed using less social media would result in ___ .
A. people’s fear of missing out B. higher levels of depression
C. obvious relief in loneliness D. lower levels of happiness
14. According to Hunt， what benefits more to mental health？
A. Hiking out with friends. B. Taking a short holiday alone.
C. Playing computer games in spare time. D. Using social media and having fun.
15. What is the best title for the text？
A. A Study on Social Media B. Ways to Improve Mental Health
C. People Addicted to Social Media D. Social Media Influences Mental Health
Heritage on the Edge
In an effort to preserve some of the world’s most famous landmarks， Google has announced a new project to transform a few of the most endangered by climate change into interactive 3D model， just in case one or all is irreparably damaged in the coming decades.
Edinburgh Castle comprises 27 buildings on top of an extinct volcano. It was home to many kings and queens. But old roofs and rainwater management systems will become insufficient as they will be unable to deal with the level of storm water associated with extreme weather events. Besides， if temperatures continue to rise， the rate of decay （腐爛） will increase further.
Kilwa Kisiwani was a regional center of the medieval trading civilization along the East African Coast. Its permanent architecture included ports， Muslim buildings， and the unique “stone houses”. However， the drier weather and subsequently heavy rainfall are threatening the stability of the ruins， causing the worsening of this exposed heritage site.
Mosque City of Bagherat
The Mosque City of Bagherat was once a lost city. It has many Muslim buildings， bridges， roads and palaces. A recent report stressed the increasing impacts of sea level rise and changes in salinity （盐度） on this community. Increased salinity not only makes much of the water undrinkable but damages structures.
Chan Chan was the capital city of Chimu empire， stretching for nearly a thousand kilometers along the coastline. The city planning reflects a strict political and social strategy. But site managers today face challenges in rainfall and droughts due to EI Nino events and climate change that threaten to gradually wash the ancient city away.
1. What do we know about Edinburgh Castle？
A. It was built along the coast. B. It is the largest castle in the world.
C. It is in danger of being washed away. D. It used to be the home of royal families.
2. Which phenomena is happening in the Mosque City of Bagherat？
A. Water pollution. B. Water’s becoming salty.
C. Water shortage. D. Water’s being overused.
3. What is probably the biggest threat to the above sites？
A. Sea level rise. B. Volcanic eruptions.
C. Temperature rises. D. Environmental damage.
A 17-year-old Bangladeshi boy has won this year’s International Children’s Peace Prize for his work to fight cyberbullying （網络欺凌） in his country.
The prize winner， Sadat Rahman， promised to keep fighting online abuse until it no longer exists. “The fight against cyberbullying is like a war， and in this war I am a fearless fighter，” Sadat Rahman said during a ceremony on November 13 in The Hague， the Netherlands. He added， “If everybody keeps supporting me， then together we will win this battle against cyberbullying.”
Rahman developed a mobile phone application that provides education about online bullying and a way to report cases of it. He said he began his work on the project after hearing the story of a 15-year-old girl who took her own life as a result of cyberbullying. “I will not stop until we receive no more cases through the app，” Rahman said at the ceremony.
The award comes with a fund of over $118，000， which is invested by the KidsRights Foundation. The group chooses projects to support causes that are closely linked to the winner’s work.
Past well-known winners of the prize include Pakistani human rights activist Malala Yousafzai and Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg. And the students who organized the March for Our Lives event in 2018 in the American state of Florida also won the prize.
Yousafzai praised Rahman’s work during the ceremony. She spoke through video conferencing. “All children have the right to be protected from violence no matter if it is physical or mental， offline or online，” she said. “Cyberbullying damages that right.”
4. What does Sadat Rahman devote himself to？
A. Being a brave fighter. B. Helping poor children.
C. Removing school bullying. D. Battling online violence.
5. What caused Sadat Rahman to start his project？
A. People’s lack of education. B. His own experience of being bullied.
C. A girl’s death from cyberbullying. D. The wide use of mobile phone apps.
6. What is Paragraph 5 mainly about？
A. The March for Our Lives event. B. Human rights activists in the world.
C. Some kids rights activities. D. Some previous winners of the prize.
7. What can we infer from Yousafzai’s words？
A. Rahman’s efforts have paid off.
B. Cyberbullying should be got rid of.
C. All children have the right to fight against violence.
D. Children are faced with physical and mental bullying.
Picture a lecture session at a business school and you probably imagine students gazing at screens filled with equations （方程式）. What you might not expect is students attempting to sing “O Clap Your Hands”. But Bartleby was treated to this delight on a visit to Saïd Business School in Oxford earlier this year.
There was a catch. Some of the students had to try conducting the chorus. The first to take the challenge was a rather self-confident young man. It didn’t take long for him to go wrong. His most obvious mistake was to start conducting without asking the singers how they would like to be directed， though they had the expertise and he was a complete beginner.
The session， organized by Pegram Harrison， a senior fellow in entrepreneurship， cleverly allowed the students to absorb some important leadership lessons. For example， leaders should listen to their teams， especially when their colleagues have specialist knowledge.
Other business schools have also realized that their students can learn from the arts. At Carnegie Mellon University， Leanne Meyer has introduced a leadership-training program that includes poetry and a book club. She believed that involvement in such pursuits can help develop empathy （認同感） in future leaders and that the program benefits students in terms of how they promote themselves to recruiters （招聘人员）.
The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art （RADA） has trained many great dramatists. It also offers training courses for managers. “Acting about finding the truth in the character and in yourself，” says Walker Wise， one of RADA’S tutors. Being a manager involves a lot more than just setting targets. It requires empathy and a knowledge of human nature. An education in the arts might help develop those qualities. Above all， the students on Harrison’s Course were experiencing something Bartleby never expected to see in those attending an MBA lecture and they were having fun.
8. What does the underlined phrase “this delight” in Paragraph 1 refer to？
A. Singing in a business class. B. Visiting Saïd Business School.
C. Picturing a lecture session. D. Gazing at screens full of equations.
9. Which of the following best describes the session by Pegram Harrison？
A. Common but influential. B. Educational and effortless.
C. Challenging and instructive. D. Controversial but practical.
10. What should a leader do based on the arts of the leadership training program？
A. Offer promotion opportunities. B. Value team members’ opinion.
C. Set specific targets. D. Control every step.
11. How does acting contribute to being a manager？
A. It provides entertainment. B. It develops goal-setting skills.
C. It exposes the truth in business. D. It helps understand human nature.
In the trailer Sischo was refreshing the snails accommodations—an ongoing routine that takes days of careful work. He had found a dozen of Achatinella bulimoides—a third of the world’s population of the species. Once every individual was accounted for， he cleaned the cage and packed in new leaves. The work took much trouble， but the responsibility， he said， was like “a heavy weight sitting on you”.
The trailer is very vulnerable. It’s designed to keep away would-be thieves， and to resist hurricanes. But a fire could easily destroy it， or a disease could sweep through it. Last September， a mystery pathogon （病原體） appeared to have entered the trailer on leaves fed to the snails， killing almost an entire species. As sad as the event was， there’s no good way to insure against future catastrophe. The snails can’t simply be spread among zoos or other facilities： they need special equipment， experienced handlers， and a diet of native Hawaiian plants.
Consequently， it can be hard for the snails’ minders （看护人） to relax， even when they are outside the trailer. “How do you switch off， when your decisions mean existence or extinction？” Sischo said. While action lightens the burden， yet with animals whose natural history is largely unknown， that action can be dangerous. “If you do it wrong， the snails die.”
Snails are neither intelligent nor beloved. Sischo’s friends sometimes tease him about being “the strange snail guy”; strangers ask why he cares. It’s hard to convince people， but he insists that if he can just get them in the trailer， they will understand why the Achatinella bulimoides are worth saving. “People melt，” he said. “When I show them that the entire population is in this chamber， it hits them.”
12. What is the trailer used for？
A. Accommodating guests. B. Sheltering snails.
C. Planting vegetables. D. Alarming thieves.
13. What does the underlined word “vulnerable” in Paragraph 2 mean？
A. Very quiet. B. Quite safe. C. Easily affected. D. Well protected.
14. How do the snail minders feel about their job？
A. Relaxed. B. Confident. C. Cautious. D. Dangerous.
15. What can be the best title for the text？
A. The Last of Its Kind B. The Worst of Times
C. Mourn Its Loss D. Resist Possible Dangers
If you follow these insider tips， your photos will look like you had the place to yourself at the popular tourist attractions.
Vatican Museums： Vatican City
The Vatican draws more than five million people each year， and queues can reach four hours during peak season. Christie Hudson， senior communications manager at Expedia， recommends choosing a skip-the-line tour. “This not only lets you avoid the ticket counter， but also includes the use of a private partner entrance.” Extra time to visit the Sistine Chapel？ Yes！
Bamboo Forest： Kyoto， Japan
Bamboo Forest is the most worthy sight in Kyoto. If you’re longing to enjoy the pathways and take pictures in total quietness， Kyoto Arashiyama Travel Guide recommends hitting the famous Bamboo Grove Path as early in the morning as possible—think 7 am if you’re up for it. Don’t miss these hidden treasures you can only witness in Japan.
Chichen Itza： Yucatán， Mexico
Home to EI Castillo and the Temple of the Warriors， Chichen Itza is a must-see. Want to beat the rush？ Schedule an early tour that takes place before a site opens to the public. Led by an archaeologist guide， it’s full of fascinating insights and facts—without tons of pack-wearing tourists.
Louvre Museum： Paris， France
The Louvre is one of the most popular museums on the planet. If waiting around in line to get in isn’t the way you prefer to spend your time in Paris， consider purchasing a reserved ticket. This will give you entry to the pyramid within a half-hour window. The Louvre is also open until 9：45 pm on Wednesdays and Fridays， if you’re up for some late-night art visits.
1. What is recommended at Vatican Museums by Christie Hudson？
A. Buying tickets in advance. B. Visiting off the peak season.
C. Taking a skip-the-line tour. D. Visiting the Sistine Chapel first.
2. Which can be a choice for early tourists to avoid the rush？
A. Vatican Museums and Bamboo Forest. B. Chichen Itza and Bamboo Forest.
C. Bamboo Forest and Louvre Museum. D. Chichen Itza and Louvre Museum.
3. Who is the text mainly intended for？
A. Visitors interested in museums. B. Guides at the tourist attractions.
C. People at the ticket counter. D. Tourists to beat the rush.
I stood outside my front door catching my breath. After a lazy Christmas holiday， I had to recover from climbing stairs with carry-on bags and a suitcase. I looked up and blinked. Red tape crossed the door. I didn’t understand Hungarian， but the one English word said enough： “POLICE”.
Google Translate told me I would be arrested if I entered， so I didn’t. Finally， I called my rental agent. He went to the police station for more details.
My agent returned with authorization to enter. Not only were my files undisturbed， but so were the TV and printer. The burglars had taken a few items from the top drawer as well as a small amount of foreign currency in the bottom drawer. Somehow they hadn’t found the jewelry box in the third drawer.
I was in shock. My agent’s words were fuzzy （模糊的）， something about fixing the locks tomorrow and making a list for the police.
Then one day， I remembered that I’d left another jewelry box in the flat. My heart sank as I thought of another locket that had been in that box， a gold engraved one with a picture of my late honey Grandma inside. When I realized the box was missing， the whole experience seemed to crash down on me. I cried.
At the end of January， I received a registered letter from the police. The burglar hadn’t been found， and the case was closed. I slept with my purse by my bed. I hid my laptop when I showered. And then another challenge rose. I was unexpectedly laid off.
Then one July night， I reached into my third drawer， pulled out my jean shorts， and heard a small thud （砰的一聲）. I looked down and blinked： It was the tiny jewelry box I thought had been stolen six months earlier.
Inside was the locket with honey Grandma smiling at me， being there for me， telling me not to give up. I started to cry.
4. What did the red tape across the author’s door mean？
A. There was a burglary here. B. The house couldn’t be entered freely.
C. The rent had to be paid quickly. D. The rental agent advertised for the house.
5. What did the agent promise to do？
A. Fix the locks the next day. B. Report the burglary to the police.
C. Have an iron security gate fixed. D. Pay for missing things for the author.
6. Which can best describe the change of the author’s feeling after she learned of the burglary？
A. puzzled→ anxious→ relaxed B. shocked→ sorrowful→ nervous
C. shocked→ desperate→ hopeful D. puzzled→ relieved→ confident
7. What can be the best title for the text？
A. Red Tape B. A Jewelry Box
C. “Lost” Smile D. Grandma’s Advice
The world’s largest iceberg is floating toward South Georgia in the southern Atlantic Ocean. Scientists fear the iceberg could crash into the island and block major feeding areas for a large population of penguins and seals. If the iceberg hits the island， it could prevent the penguins and seals from reaching food supplies.
The huge iceberg is named A68a. It broke away from Antarctica’s Larsen C ice shelf in 2017. Satellite images show the iceberg has remained in one piece. It is estimated to be about 150 kilometers long and 48 kilometers wide. It is traveling at one kilometer per hour and is on a path to hit South Georgia in around 30 days.
This is the time of year when seals and penguins spend a lot of time caring for their young. The distance that parents have to travel to find food is crucial. That means they have to go a lot further or go around the iceberg to find sources of food.
Ecologists say an iceberg crash would also disturb materials settled on the seabed， possibly polluting the surrounding seas. As the iceberg melts， it would also release large amounts of fresh water into the ocean. This could affect krill （磷蝦） populations that are a major source of food for the island’s wildlife. The iceberg could remain for up to 10 years and change the area’s whole ecosystem. These are globally significant populations of these species. If these species fail in this particular area， then the numbers globally are going to go down quite dramatically.
Professor Geraint Tarling， an ecologist at the British Antarctic Survey， said， “The breaking off of icebergs from Antarctica is a natural process. But the process is changing with climate change. What we’re seeing with models and some observations now is that this is happening at an increasing rate. And so， this might become more of a usual thing in the future.”
8. What is the scientists’ worry about the possible iceberg crash？
A. It would bring extremely cold weather.
B. It would destroy the feeding areas of the animals.
C. It would put wildlife on the island at risk of starving.
D. It would prevent animals from moving to other places.
9. What is Paragraph 2 mainly about？
A. The characteristic of the iceberg. B. The importance of the iceberg.
C. The traveling speed of the iceberg. D. The forming process of the iceberg.
10. What damage can an iceberg crash bring according to Paragraph 4？
A. Using up much fresh water. B. Polluting the surrounding farms.
C. Changing the world’s ecosystem. D. Affecting the number of certain species.
11. What does Tarling think of the breaking off of icebergs from Antarctica？
A. It may slow down in the near future. B. It may become common in the future.
C. It has a great influence on the climate. D. It helps scientists conduct a sea study.
A new study found evidence that dogs developed in physical ways to present “puppy dog eyes” as a way to help connect with humans.
The study compared the facial muscles of dogs and wolves， which share ancestral history. Dogs broke off from wolves after being domesticated （馴化） about 33，000 years ago. During that time dogs changed physically and behaviorally to adapt to live with humans.
The researchers examined the heads of six dogs and two wolves for comparison. They found the facial structures of both animals were mostly very similar. But one major difference was found above the eyes. The dogs were found to have two well-formed muscles around the eyes that were not present in the wolves. These small muscles permit dogs to raise their inner eyebrows， the study found.
Juliane Kaminski， a comparative psychologist from the research suggests this eyebrow-rising movement causes “a warm” feelings in humans because it makes the dogs’ eyes appear larger. This expression also makes the dog look more like a human baby. The eye movement is similar to that which humans make when they are sad.
“The evidence is very obvious that dogs developed a muscle to raise the inner eyebrows after they were domesticated from wolves，” Kaminski said.
In a separate part of the study， the researchers observed how 27 dogs and nine wolves interacted with a human. “We also studied dogs’ and wolves’ behavior. And when exposed to a human for two minutes， dogs raised their inner eyebrows more and higher than wolves，” Kaminski said.
The researchers suggest that the eye movements developed over time as a way for dogs to get humans to do things for them， such as giving them food， care or attention.
The only dog species in the study that did not have the muscles was the Siberian husky， which is an ancient kind of dog. The husky could be the best living example of what the link between dogs and wolves looked like.
12. What is the difference found between dogs and wolves？
A. Dogs have nice eyebrows. B. They have different ancestors.
C. They have easily distinguishable faces. D. Dogs have additional muscles around the eyes.
13. What does Juliane Kaminski most probably suggest about dogs？
A. They have developed in order to get along with humans.
B. They have learned facial expressions like human babies.
C. They have changed their behaviors to get food from humans.
D. They are intentionally raising their eyebrows to please humans.
14. What can we learn about a Siberian husky？
A. It has lovelier eyes than the other dogs.
B. It seems much more like a wolf than a dog.
C. It can raise its eyebrows higher than most dogs do.
D. It is better at linking with humans than an ordinary dog.
15. What is the text mainly about？
A. The evolution of the wolves. B. Dogs’ ability to connect with humans.
C. The similarities between dogs and wolves. D. Changes in dogs caused by domestication.
Health， Wellness and Politics of Food
9：00—9：45 AM/Blue Tent
Panelists （專题讨论小组成员）： Jami Bernard， David Kamp， Marion Nestle and Peter Singer.
Moderated （主持） by Denise Grady， science writer for The New York Times.
How does what we eat not only have effect on our bodies， but also the world？ This group of food and nutrition experts discuss the role that diet plays in both personal and global health and food politics.
Sports Writing： For the Love of the Game
9：50—10：35 AM/Blue Tent
Panelists： Christine Brennan， Ira Rosen， Joe Wallace and Joe Drape.
Moderated by William C. Rhoden， sports writer for The New York Times.
Whether catching that key moment of victory or defeat， or covering breaking news， sports writers are anything but audience. Listen as some of the industry’s professionals discuss their personal experience of reporting sports news.
The Art of the Review
11：15—12：00 AM/Green Tent
Panelists： John Freeman， Barry Gewen， David Orr， Celia McGee and Jennifer Schuessler.
Moderated by Sam Tanenhaus， editor for The New York Times Book Service.
How much of an effect does the book review have on book sales？ Join this group of critics as they discuss the reality of book review and bestseller lists， and how they choose books for review.
New York Writers， New York Stories
3：00—3：45 PM/Green Tent
Panelists： Cindy Adams， Richard Cohen， Ric Klass and Lauren Redniss.
Moderated by Clyde Haberman， writer for the city part of The New York Times.
Join this inspired group of New York-centric writers as they talk about why New York is a gold mine of ideas for their works.
1. If you like sports writing， you will most probably ___ .
A. attend the Art of the Review B. enjoy Jami Bernard’s talk
C. listen to Christine Brennan’s talk D. go to Green Tent at 3：00 pm
2. Which activity can you take up if you are free in the afternoon？
A. The Art of the Review. B. New York Writers， New York Stories.
C. Health， Wellness and Politics of Food. D. Sports Writing： For the Love of the Game.
3. What do the four activities have in common？
A. They are about writing. B. They will last 45 minutes.
C. They can be attended freely. D. They will invite many readers.
Ten years ago， I went on a vacation in Italy. After climbing up a hill for a panoramic （全景的） view of the blue sea， white buildings and green olive trees， I paused to catch my breath and then positioned myself to take the best photo of this panorama.
Unfortunately， just as I took out my camera， a woman approached from behind， and planted herself right in front of my view. Like me， this woman was here to stop， sigh and appreciate the view.
Patient as I was， after about 15 minutes， I grew frustrated. Was it too much to ask her to move so I could take just one picture of the landscape？ Sure， I could have asked her， but something prevented me from doing so. She seemed so content in her observation. I didn’t want to mess with that. Another 15 minutes passed and I grew bored. The woman was still there. I decided to take the photo anyway.
Now when I look at the photo， I think her presence in the photo is what makes the image interesting. The landscape， beautiful on its own， somehow comes to life and breathes because this woman is engaging with it.
This photo， with the unique beauty that unfolded before me and that woman who “ruined” it， now hangs on a wall in my bedroom. What would she think if she knew that her figure is captured and frozen on some stranger’s bedroom wall？
Perhaps we all live in each other’s spaces. Perhaps this is what photos are for： to remind us that we all appreciate beauty， that we all share a common desire for pleasure， for connection， for something that is greater than us.
4. What happened when the author was about to take a photo？
A. Her camera stopped working. B. A woman blocked her view.
C. Someone asked her to leave. D. A friend approached from behind.
5. What was the woman probably doing when the author was to take the photo？
A. Enjoying herself. B. Losing her patience. C. Waiting for the sunset. D. Thinking about her past.
6. What makes the photo so alive according to the author？
A. The rich color of the landscape. B. The perfect positioning of the camera.
C. The woman’s existence in the photo. D. The soft summer sunlight.
7. The photo on the author’s bedroom wall enables her to better understand ___ .
A. the need to be close to nature B. the importance of private space
C. the joy of the vacation in Italy D. the shared passion for beauty
Confused by food nutrition labels？ You’re not alone. Now， researchers have suggested an alternative： labeling the amount and type of exercise needed to burn off the calories.
Current food and drink labels display nutritional information such as the amount of calories and fat. However， researchers led by Prof. Amanda Daley at Loughborough University say that these labels are having a limited effect on changing buying habits. Instead， they propose a labeling system called physical activity calorie equivalent or expenditure’ （PACE）， which shows how many minutes or miles of physical activity are needed to burn off the calories. For example， a small bar of milk chocolate contains 230 calories， which would take about 42 minutes of walking， or 22 minutes of running， to burn off.
They pooled the data from 14 previous studies which compared the impact of PACE labeling with that of other types of food labeling， or with no food labeling at all. They calculated that PACE labeling could cut a person’s daily calorie intake by up to 200 calories. “Public health agencies may want to consider the possibility of including policies to promote PACE food labeling as a strategy that contributes to the prevention and treatment of obesity （肥胖） and related diseases，” said the researchers.
The UK’s Royal Society for Public Health has already called for PACE labeling to replace the current system. However， not everyone is convinced. A spokesperson for the eating disorder charity Beat said， “We believe that anti-obesity campaigns that focus on weight instead of health are ineffective and that recommending more exercise is an ineffective and over-simplistic approach to a complex problem. Most urgently， public health campaigns must consider people’s mental as well as their physical health， moving from obesity-shaming to evidence-based campaigns that build confidence and support healthy eating.”
8. What additional information can you get from PACE labels compared with the current ones？
A. Fat content. B. Exercise advice. C. Nutrition facts. D. Calorie content.
9. What does the underlined word “pooled” in Paragraph 3 probably mean？
A. Collected. B. Shared. C. Compared. D. Proved.
10. How can we solve obesity problem according to Beat’s comments？
A. By increasing exercise. B. By cutting calories.
C. By focusing on weight and healthy eating. D. By focusing on health in body and in mind.
11. What can be the best title for the text？
A. PACE： A New Labeling Option B. Nutrition： A Basic Step Towards Health
C. Labeling： A Smart Advisor for Shopping D. Exercise： An Effective Treatment for Obesity
If a plant screams in the forest and nobody is there to hear it， did it actually scream？
The answer to that， which can now be determined， is a loud yes. Itzhak Khait and his colleagues from Tel Aviv University in Israel placed microphones near tomato plants. The microphones picked up ultrasonic （超聲的） sounds that could be heard by animals and insects—but not by the human ear， unless the humans were using high-end audio equipment.
Their study found something remarkable： A plant that’s suffering from a drought can send out a sound， warning an insect like a moth （蛾） that the particular plant is not a good place to lay an egg. It may even serve as a warning to other plants that water is not enough in the area. They apparently hear the “water stressed” screams of the plant. “Our results suggest that animals， humans， and possibly even other plants could use sounds given by a plant to gain information about the plant’s condition，” they wrote.
The authors point out that the behavior is actually in line with the natural order of things， considering that a plant’s ability to sense its environment and respond to it is critical for its survival. So， it seems that plants have some sort of consciousness. Charles Darwin was actually one of the first scientists to put forward this notion， and his theories eventually led to a field known as plant neurobiology.
Plants have even been known to show some learning behavior. In a study done last year by the same team of plant scientists in Israel， they found that flowers can actually hear the buzzing of bees. The plants hear bees approaching and attempt to attract them with sweeter nectar （花蜜）. In several experiments， they found they didn’t even need actual bees. They simply played audio recordings of buzzing bees around certain flowers. Those recordings caused the sugar concentration in the nectar to rise by about 20% in less than five minutes. Such a rapid reaction by plants to sound had never been reported before.
12. Why do Khait and his team use microphones in their study？
A. To collect ultrasonic sounds. B. To help plants carry sounds.
C. To attract animals and insects. D. To record the sounds from insects and animals.
13. When hearing a sound from a plant affected by the drought， a moth would probably ___ .
A. make a nest there B. turn a deaf ear to it
C. avoid laying eggs there D. inform other moths
14. Why does the author mention Charles Darwin in Paragraph 4？
A. To introduce a subject. B. To support a viewpoint.
C. To provide more details. D. To make a comparison.
15. Which of the following indicates the plants’ learning ability？
A. The time they spend producing nectar. B. Their quick reaction to audio recordings.
C. Their reaction to the sound of actual bees. D. Their method of appealing to approaching bees.