APP下载

必修3 第1单元同步语法讲练

2020-10-26王立新

考试与评价·高一版 2020年1期
关键词:第三人称否定句情态

王立新

1. can与could的用法

(1) 表示能力(could是过去式)。

My grandmother can do some shopping on the Internet now, but she couldnt last year. 我奶奶现在会网购了,但是去年她还不会。

(2) 表示猜測,意为“可能”,一般用于疑问句和否定句(could是过去式)。

Can this news be true? 这则消息是真的吗?

(3) 表示请求和许可(could表示更委婉的语气,回答时只能用can)。

—Can / Could I go now? 我现在可以走了吗?

—Yes, you can. 是的,可以。

(4) 用于肯定的陈述句中,表示理论上或习惯上的可能性。

As we all know, anyone can make mistakes. 我们都知道,任何人都可能犯错。

(5) 习惯用法“cannot... too...”表示“无论怎样……都不过分,越……越好”。有时cannot可用can never代替。

We cannot thank you too much for what youve done for us. 对于你们为我们所做的一切,我们怎么感激都不过分。

【注意】 can与be able to

(1) can只有现在时和过去时(could),而be able to则有更多的时态变化,在将来时、完成时和非谓语动词中只能用be able to。

(2) can一般指自身具有的能力,而be able to则表示经过一段时间的努力后所具有的能力,相当于manage to do...或succeed in doing...。

(3)在否定结构中was / were able to与could没有区别。

This time I failed in the exam, but Ill be able to pass the exam next time. 这次我考试不及格,但下次考试我能及格。(经过努力)

She ran fast but she couldnt / wasnt able to catch the bus. 她跑得很快可还是没能赶上公共汽车。

2. may与might的用法

(1) 表示允许、许可。might在语气上比may更委婉。以may / might开头的问句在否定回答中要用mustnt / cant。

—May / Might I watch the program Keep Running after supper? 晚饭后我可以看节目《奔跑吧》吗?

—Yes, you may. / No, you mustnt / cant. 是的,可以。/不,不行。

(2) 表示把握不大的推测,意为“可能”,用于肯定句。

might语气更加不肯定,指现在或将来,只有在宾语从句中might do (be)才表示过去的可能性。

I think he may come tomorrow. 我认为明天他可能会来。

(3) may用于祈使句表示祝愿。

May you succeed. 祝你成功。

3. will与would的用法

(1) 表示意志、意愿和决心。用于各种人称,will指现在,would指过去。

I will never do that again. 我再也不那样做了。

They said that they would fight against the haze. 他们说会与雾霾作斗争的。

(2) 表示请求、建议。用于第二人称的疑问句,would表示更委婉的语气。

Will / Would you please take a message for me? 你能帮我捎个口信吗?

(3) 表示习惯性的动作,意为“总是;习惯于”。will指现在,would指过去。

Fish will die without water. 没有水鱼儿就会死。

(4) 用于否定句,表示“不肯;不乐意”。

No matter what I said, he wouldnt listen to me. 无论我说什么,他就是不肯听我的。

【注意】 would与used to

两者均表示“过去常常”,但would仅表示过去的习惯性动作(不表状态),现在有可能还如此,也可能不再那样;used to既表示过去的动作也表示过去的状态,不过现在不再做或不再有那种状态了。

He would take a walk near the forest in the evening. 以前,他晚间常在树林附近散步。

He used to take a walk near the forest in the evening. 他过去常在晚间到树林附近散步。(而现在已不在那里散步了)

4. shall与should的用法

(1) shall用于第一、第三人称的疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请示。

What shall I / we do next? 我(们)下一步该做什么?

When shall my brother be able to leave hospital? 我哥哥什么时候可以出院?

(2) shall用于第二、第三人称,表示说话人给对方命令、警告、允诺或威胁。

You shall go with me. (命令)你跟我走。

You shall have a new dress for your birthday. (允诺)你在生日时会得到一件新裙子。

He shall be punished. (威胁)他会受到惩罚的。

(3) should表示劝告或建议,意为“应该”,其同义词是ought to;还可表示可能性或表示惊讶、愤怒、失望等特殊情感。

You should go to class right away. 你应该立刻去上课。

Dont ask me. How should I know? 别问我。我怎么会知道?

5. must的用法

(1) 表示“必须”,语气比should, ought to强烈。其否定形式为mustnt (不准;禁止)。

You mustnt do that, because you must keep your word. 你不能那么做,因为你得遵守诺言。

以must开头的一般疑问句的肯定回答要用must,否定回答要用neednt / dont have to。

—Must I finish the paper today? 今天我必须完成论文吗?

—Yes, you must. / No, you neednt / dont have to. 是的,你必須。/不,你不必。

(2) 表示有把握的肯定推测,只能用在肯定句中,意为“一定;准是”;在否定句、疑问句中要用cant代替。

You have worked hard all day. You must be tired. 辛苦工作了一整天,你一定累了。(对现在情况的推测判断)

(3) 表示感情色彩,意为“偏偏;偏要”,常指令人不快的事情。

The car must break down just when I was about to start. 我正要出发时车偏偏抛锚了。

【练一练】

I. 用适当的情态动词完成课文原句。

1. Most ancient festivals _______ celebrate the end of cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn.

2. Some festivals are held to honour the dead or to satisfy the ancestors, who _______ return either to help or to do harm.

3. For the Japanese festival Obon, people _______ go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors.

4. Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals _______ be very happy events.

5. At the Spring Festival in China, people eat dumplings, fish and meat and _______ give children lucky money in red paper.

II. 用适当的情态动词填空。

1. He _______ have the book when I finish reading.

2. Even an experienced teacher _______ make mistakes.

3. I havent decided where Im going for my holidays. I _______ go to Australia.

4. You _______ be hungry already—you had lunch only two hours ago!

5. When we lived in that village, we _______ often play together in the park there.

6. “You _______ have a wrong number,” she

said. “Theres no one of that name here.”

7. Drivers _______ drive after drinking.

8. She promised to come by 12:00. She _______ be here at any time.

III. 从方框中选择正确的情态动词填空。

may, must, can

1. He looks so pale. He _______ be ill.

2. They _______ be having a meeting, but Im not sure.

3. I wonder whether this story _______ be true.

would, used to

4. Each time his mothers birthday came, he

_______ buy her a present.

5. He _______ be late for school, but now he is used to getting up early.

shall, should

6. Jim is waiting outside. _______ he come in?

7. You _______ go to the doctor at once.

mustnt, cant

8. Tom, you _______ play with the dog; it may hurt you.

9. —Is Jack on duty today?

—It _______ be him. Its his turn tomorrow.

10. The boy is so shy that he _______ express himself well.

猜你喜欢

第三人称否定句情态
can have done用法小结
谈谈英语教学中 第三人称单数及其后面动词的用法
用第三人称和自己说话能减压
学写双重否定句
记叙文写作之记事(三)
高考语法分类练习
情态动词专练
情态动词表推测用法列举
Units 1—2句型转换专练
聚焦现在完成进行时