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宽仁医院中国西南地区最早的现代西医院

2020-08-04杨艳

重庆与世界 2020年7期
关键词:西南地区医科大学重庆

杨艳

據《重庆市卫生志》记载,宽仁医院始建于1892年,是重庆医科大学附属第二医院的前身。1891年的秋天,美国基督教美以美会的医生马嘉里(Dr.Games.H.Mecaitney)从宜昌坐船来到重庆筹办医院。1892年10月,一座西式综合医院在重庆城区戴家巷落成,医院命名为Chungking General Hosipital,对外称中文名:宽仁医院。“宽仁”二字语出《尚书》:“克宽克仁,彰信兆民”,意为宽宏仁爱,彰明诚信。这是中国西南地区最早的现代西医院。

当时医院大门为圆拱形,两旁为八字型照壁,院中4幢中西合璧式青砖楼房。主楼4层,临江两幢带有长廊。设有普通病房一间,私人病房两间,病床约30余张。

据了解,首任院长马嘉里是一个具有超强意志力的人,他一边用教会资助的钱积极筹办医院,一边开展医疗工作,并将所得收入全部用于改善医疗条件。马嘉里精力旺盛,也很有责任心,还跟重庆老百姓学说中国话。

宽仁医院落成当天,马嘉里向当地川东道、重庆府和巴县三级衙门主官发出邀请函,但由于当时重庆民风守旧,没有人敢来参加典礼。虽然一开始就遭遇冷落,但没有浇灭马嘉里及医院同仁的行医热忱,他们用高超的医术、真诚的态度救助病人,逐渐在重庆打开了现代医疗的新局面。1902年,中国西南地区首例母子平安的剖宫产手术在宽仁医院完成。不少名人也曾与宽仁医院结下不解之缘:刘伯承曾在宽仁医院做过眼部手术;宋美龄曾向宽仁医院捐赠流动救护车;巴金的女儿、沈钧儒的孙子在宽仁医院出生,冰心和家人也曾长住宽仁医院……

抗日战争时期,城内遭遇大轰炸,宽仁医院暂时迁到沙坪坝歌乐山,为保护中国人民的生命和健康作出巨大贡献。时任国民政府主席林森曾为医院题写院名。

图片/重庆医科大学附属第二医院提供

According to Chongqing Medical Chronicles, Chungking General Hosipital, the predecessor of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, was founded in 1892. In the fall of 1891, Dr. Games. H. Mecaitney, doctor of the Methodist Episcopal Church, came from Yichang by boat, pooling resources to build a hospital in Chongqing. In October 1892, a western general hospital named Chungking General Hospital was inaugurated in Daijia Alley, Yuzhong District. The hospital was known as Kuan Ren Hospital in Chinese. The word "Kuan Ren" comes from the line “stay benevolent to the people for the trust and faith they grant” in the Book of Documents (Shangshu), one of the five classics of ancient Chinese literature. It is the earliest modern general hospital in southwest China.

By then the hospital had an arched entrance with two splayed spirit screens on each side. Inside the courtyard stood four black brick houses with 4 storeys featuring both Chinese and Western style. Two of the houses overlooking the river had long corridors. Altogether there were one general ward and two private wards, with a total of 30 beds.

Dr. Games. H. Mecaitney, the inaugural president of the hospital was reportedly a person with strong will. He pooled funds from the church to build the hospital while practicing medicine, and invested all his income in improving medical facilities and health care conditions in Chongqing. He was energetic and responsible. He was even learning Chinese from Chongqing people.

Upon completion of Chungking General Hosipital, Dr. Games. H. Mecaitney sent invitations to the heads of the local governments at three levels, respectively Ba County (Ba Xian), Chongqing Prefecture (Chongqing Fu) and Eastern Sichuan Circuit (Chuan Dong Dao). However, no one dared to attend the inaugural ceremony because of the conservative norms in Chongqing at the time. The short shrift given at the beginning did not falter the passion and resolution of Dr. Games. H. Mecaitney and his fellow colleagues for medical practice. They treated patients with superb medical skills and sincerity, writing a new chapter of modern medicine in Chongqing.

In 1939, during the War of Resistance Against Japanese Agression, Chungking General Hospital was moved to Shapingba of Gele Mountain, making tremendous contribution to safeguarding the lives and health of the Chinese people. Lin Sen, the then chairman of the National Government of the Republic of China, inscribed the name of the hospital. In 1902, the first cesarean section in southwest China was performed in the hospital where both the mother and baby went through the surgery safely.

Chungking General Hosipital also had special bonds with many celebrities. Marshal Liu Bocheng had his eye surgery there and Madame Soong Mei-ling once donated a mobile ambulance to the hospital. Ba Jin's daughter and Shen Junru's grandson were born there. Bing Xin and her family once lived in the hospital for a long time.

Photo / The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University

Editor/Yang Yan

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