The end of British pub culture? 英国酒吧文化已日薄西山？
A. J. Dalton (amended by Jon Porter)
For thousands of years， the most important two buildings in any British village have been the church and the pub. In fact， until a place has a church and a pub， it is not really considered a community worthy of a name. Traditionally， the church and the pub are at the heart of any village or town， since they are where the people gather to socialise and exchange news. They are institutions at the heart of British society. After all， the word “pub” is actually short for “public house”.
As a result， British pubs are often old and well preserved. Many of them have become historic sites that tourists visit. One of the most famous examples is the pub in the city of Nottingham called“Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem”， which dates back to the year AD 1189 and is probably the oldest pub in England. It was the same year in which King Richard the First （the “Lionheart”） came to the throne， and it was he who led the First Crusade into the Holy Land， towards Jerusalem.
Many British pubs have old names referring to monarchs， such as “The King？蒺s Head or The Queen Victoria”， but of course this doesn？蒺t mean they are only for kings and queens. Pubs have always welcomed people from all classes and parts of society. On a cold night， the pub？蒺s landlord or landlady can always find a warm place for you by the fire. There is always honest and hearty food and plenty of drink available at an affordable price.
That？蒺s how it used to be， but there are worrying signs that things are beginning to change. Economic downturns， governmental “austerity measures”， and cultural changes are causing many pubs to go out of business. People do not have a lot of spare money to spend on beer. On top of that， in 2007 smoking was banned in all public indoor spaces， including pubs， which may also have affected the numbers of customers going to pubs since then.
This decline is happening despite the fact that pubs are now allowed by law to stay open after 11 pm. Previously， with 11 pm as closing time， customers would have to drink quite quickly， meaning they sometimes got more drunk than they would if allowed to drink slowly. The British habit of drinking a lot very quickly is known as “binge drinking”， and it causes long？鄄term health problems for individuals and problems with violent crime for communities. The UK government is trying to find ways of discouraging binge drinking， and regularly spends money on television commercials to warn people of the problems of drinking too much.
In order to save their businesses， pubs are trying to diversify to attract new customers. Now， there are a number of different types of pubs：
A “traditional pub” is usually more than a hundred years old， often has a ceiling made of oak beams and often has a large， open fire.
A “gastro pub” serves higher？鄄quality food than usual. It is a bit more expensive than a traditional pub， but often has received awards for excellent cooking.
A “microbrewery” is a pub that brews and serves its own beer on the premises. It often has fresher beer than other types of pub.
A “theme pub” caters to specific types of customers， such as sports or karaoke fans.
As you can see， British pubs now offer something for everyone. And with various“save the pub” campaigns， there are signs that people are rallying around these new kinds of pubs while supporting the traditional pub， migrating back from the modern and trendy wine bars to support this great British institution with pride.
Activity 1： Multiple choice
Choose the correct answer for each question.
1. Why are British pubs often so old？
A. The British want to attract tourists.
B. They follow in the tradition of British kings and queens.
C. There has always been a need for them in Britain.
2. British people that go to pubs .
A. can be from any part of society
B. are mainly men
C. are often royalty
3. Why are so many pubs going out of business？
A. Economy and culture change.
B. They？蒺re not changing fast enough.
C. They are too traditional.
4. Why did the UK government allow pubs to stay open after 11 pm？
A. To encourage binge drinking.
B. To save British businesses.
C. To encourage more sensible ways of drinking.
Activity 2： Vocabulary
Choose the correct words to complete the sentences.
1. Have you been to that new bar？ It s very _________.
2. _________ ， there were certain drinking clubs in Britain that women could not enter.
3. Tourists like to visit _________ sites.
4. In British pubs today， people can come and go _________.
5. _________， the UK government has banned smoking in pubs.
6. Many people visit British pubs for the _________fare （food and drink）.
1. Change one letter in the word “dine” to find an alcoholic drink.
2. Change one letter in the word “pub” to find a baby bear.
3. Change one letter in the word “bear” to find an alcoholic drink.
4. Change one letter in the word “fine” to make yourself hot.
5. Change one letter in the word “health” to make yourself rich.
6. Change one letter in the word “good” if you？蒺re hungry.
Word of the text
“Binge drinking” is the term we use to describe drinking too much too quickly. It is a social problem.
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