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Threats that tigers face “森林之王”遇威胁

2020-06-01王志红

疯狂英语·读写版 2020年4期
关键词:长条红树林老虎

王志红

号称“森林之王”的老虎如今也生存不易,面臨种种威胁。是什么导致这种情况?

难词探意

1. degrade /d??ɡre?d/ v. (使)退化

2. shrink /?r?k/ v. (使)缩小;收缩;减少

3. retaliation /r??t?l??e??n/ n. 报复;反击

4. mangrove /?m?ɡr??v/ n. 红树林植物

5. mitigation /?m?t??ɡe??n/ n. 减轻;缓解

In some areas, tigers are still in crisis and declining in number. Here are some threats that tigers are faced with.

Habitat loss

Tigers have lost an estimated 95% of their historical range. Their habitat has been destroyed, degraded, and broken apart by human activities. The clearing of forests for agriculture and woods, as well as the building of road networks and other development activities, pose serious threats to tiger habitats. Tigers need wide swathes(一长条) of habitat for their survival since they have large home ranges and are very territorial. Fewer tigers can survive in small, scattered islands of habitat, which leads to a higher risk of inbreeding and makes tigers more vulnerable to poaching as they venture beyond protected areas to establish their territories.

Human?wildlife conflict

People and tigers increasingly compete for space. As forests shrink and prey becomes scarce, tigers are forced to leave protected areas in search of food and to establish territories. This takes them into human?dominated areas that lie between habitat fragments, where they can hunt domestic livestock that many local communities depend on for their livelihood. In retaliation, tigers are sometimes killed or captured. “Conflict” tigers can end up for sale in black markets. Local community dependence on forests for fuel wood, food, and timber heightens the risk of tiger attacks on people.

Effects of climate change

One of the worlds largest, and most uniquely?adapted, tiger populations are found in the Sundarbans—a large mangrove forest area shared by India and Bangladesh on the coast of the Indian Ocean. It is also the only coastal mangrove tiger habitat in the world. These mangrove forests harbor a variety of species, including tigers, and protect coastal regions from storm surges and wind damage. However, rising sea levels caused by climate change threaten to wipe out these forests and the last remaining habitat of this tiger population. According to a WWF study, without mitigation efforts, projected sea?level rise—about a foot by 2070—could destroy nearly the entire Sundarbans tiger habitat.

Tiger “farms” and captive tigers

Current estimates indicate that there are between 7,000 and 8,000 tigers being held in more than 200 centers in East and Southeast Asia, with roughly three?quarters of these tigers located in China. The current scale of commercial captive breeding efforts within these farms is a significant obstacle to the recovery and protection of wild tiger populations. It is estimated that nearly 5,000 tigers reside in the US, and we must ensure that these animals are not exploited by, or contributing to, the illegal trade in tigers and their parts.

Reading Check

1. Whats the meaning of the underlined word “pose” in paragraph 2?

A. Stand.

B. Cause.

C. Pretend.

D. Impress.

2. Tigers have to leave protected areas for                .

A. breeding and freedom

B. freedom and adventures

C. territories and breeding

D. food and territories

3. What can we know about the Sundarbans?

A. It belongs to Bangladesh.

B. It is one of the coastal mangrove tiger habitats in the world.

C. It can protect coastal regions from storm and wind damage.

D. It will soon disappear because of over cutting from humans.

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