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一条河给予浙江文化的福泽

2020-03-16吴蓓

文化交流 2020年2期
关键词:大运河运河浙江

吴蓓

在广袤的中华大地上诸多东西蜿蜒的水系中,那条以别出心裁的走向而贯南通北的大运河,无疑是最为霸气和吸人眼球的。它的特殊,源于它是人工斧凿与天然河道资源利用相融合的结晶。这项始自春秋战国,历隋唐、宋元而迄明清,不断开凿、修筑、疏浚、改道、整治而成的工程,是中华文明历程中的标志性大工程,我们现在称作中国大运河。中国大运河实由隋唐大运河()、京杭大运河()以及浙东运河()3条运河组成,全长近3200公里。古老运河的波光潋滟,讲述着南来北往的交通故事,关乎战争与统一,关乎经济与繁荣,也关乎文学与艺术。这些相互交融的故事,在大运河的浙江段,似乎演绎得分外活色生香、淋漓尽致。

在汽车、火车、飞机这些现代化交通工具尚未发明的古代,人们迁徙的最先进的凭藉,便是陆上的马匹与水上的船只。而水上交通显然更具有快捷、载重量大等优势。大运河作为南北交通的大动脉,在中国历史上三次大规模的北人南迁历程中发挥了重要的作用。

三次大迁徙,都起因于战乱。第一次始于西晋末的永嘉之乱、五胡乱华,约90万北方人口渡江南下。第二次发生在唐朝安史之乱后,约有250万人口迁徙到了南方。第三次发生在北宋末靖康之变后,由宋室南迁而率起,迁徙的规模和影响最为空前。前两次大迁徙,中国人口的地理分布发生了根本的改变,长江流域日渐开发,北方黄河流域日渐衰落,渐渐形成了南胜于北的格局。第三次的南迁随着杭州成为南宋的临时都城,两浙地区成为了全国的政治中心、经济中心和文化中心。三次南迁的路线当然不止一条,但大运河诸河段的存在,即使达不到“天堑变通途”的效应,所起到的交通作用也无疑是巨大的。

伴随着三次北人南迁,中国的政治、经济、文化步步南移。如果从浙江区域文化发展史的角度来看,浙江文化在北方中原文化的不断影响下所展现的融合、重塑乃至发展成熟的轨迹也是分明可见的。第三次南迁后浙江文化攀上高峰,产生了堪称浙江文化灵魂的浙学,此时的浙江文化已不再仅仅是华夏的区域文化之一分子,它所在地区的吴越文化已然成为全国的主流文化,越来越多地影响和引领中国潮流,成为当时华夏文化的中心、中国文化的渊薮。

文化的内涵太丰富了,对于浙江老百姓而言,或许文学艺术中所透露的一些消息更能让他们具有文化认同感。比如,晋宋之际,随一大批衣冠士族南来的王、谢家族,携玄学风流,给浙江带来兰亭修褉、山水吟赏、二王书法,不仅为后世文人所效仿,更成为某种文化象征和高标远韵,令文学史、艺术史涵泳不已。又比如,唐人携仙道之气和壮游远怀来到浙江的青山丽水间,留下一条“唐诗之路”,让我们咏怀古迹。再比如,浙江文化发展到成熟期的南宋阶段,文学上最值得称道的成就,是造就了有“一代文學”之称的宋词。宋词和唐诗为中华文化史上的两朵并蒂之花,共同为华夏子孙后代带来无尽的审美和陶冶。相对于诗来说,这门更为年轻的语言艺术,有着更为优美错落的句式,更为动听婉转的声韵格律,更为幽深绵长的情感寄托。这一朵宋词之花,由北向南,在两浙青山绿水的辉映和氤氲之气的熏陶下,无论淡妆浓抺,始终萦绕着一股清丽之气;又在当时理学思想的影响下,滤去原生所携带的儿女情、脂粉气,旖旎出落为最绚丽的姿容,为后世树立了既“清空”又“骚雅”的语言艺术的至高审美典范。

大运河给予浙江文化的助力深远绵长,当然不局限于历史上的三次大迁徙。元代会通河、通惠河开通后,北方大批戏曲家纷纷南下,推动了浙江戏曲的繁荣。关汉卿游历杭州,曾写下著名的散曲《南吕·一枝花·杭州景》;马致远出任江浙行省官员,著名的《天净沙·秋思》低吟的“小桥流水人家”,端的就是江南景。郑光祖、乔吉等散曲名家更是驻足留居,在两浙山水里吟赏烟霞。

而浙江土生土长的南戏在外来北曲杂剧的刺激下,也开启了融合中求变革、变革中谋发展的前景。杭州人沈和操北曲入乐,创造了“南北合套”的体制结构;明代的高明、洪昇也在变革中创造出《琵琶记》《长生殿》等戏曲名著;徐渭是浙东人叛逆精神的代表,他在诗文书画各个领域都摆脱常规,独出新意,戏曲也是如此,代表作《四声猿》大胆歌颂人的情欲、男女平等,展露出思想解放的可贵新貌。求新求变的浙江精神,如此这般,在各个文化领域、各个艺术门类中潜滋暗长,竞绽新葩。

大运河给予浙江文化的福泽,还可作雅俗两面观。

高门大户的子弟,摇着运河的舟楫进京赶考,博取功名利禄。明清两代,江浙的进士人数高居榜首,这后面的背景深可玩味。那些走着正统路子的读书人,每每都写着正统的、雅的诗文,我们在《四库》集部里所看到的诗文,大抵都是雅文化的传承。

然而明清之际,繁荣的运河沿线城市,又催生出一种“俗”的、有生气的市民文化,它在接续宋元话本统绪的基础上,发展为明清通俗小说。据统计,明清两代,有80%左右的小说出自运河流域作家之手,其中就包括《三国演义》《西游记》《水浒传》《红楼梦》四大名著以及《金瓶梅》《三言》《二拍》《聊斋志异》《儒林外史》等杰作。这些小说的作者,与运河城市的渊源可谓深厚,不是生于斯、长于斯,便是曾经因各种遭际盘桓此间,听桨声灯语,看孤帆远影,观人生百态,攒万千感悟,挥笔底风云。三言二拍里所写的明代故事,有许多与京杭大运河有着密切的关系,情节内容设定在浙江的就有十几篇之多。这些小说,面向下层市民阅读群体,将运河交通、城市经济与市民商业生活容纳进作品中,写人的俗情俗性,构成了有别于传统士大夫诗文的“俗文学”序列,在中国文学史上焕发出别样的异彩。

“运河催生俗文学”这一现象,是多棱镜,也是万花筒。择重要的一棱看,它反映着经济基础。运河沿岸城市的生活是富庶的,古今中外,但凡临海或临江临河的城市,借了这水运水势,大抵都能披上华衣。历史上的运河沿岸城市,如苏州、扬州、淮安、济宁、临清、德州、天津等,莫不是当时中国商品经济和社会文化最为发达的地方,浙江的省会城市杭州也是这样。

有时候,我们似乎很难分辨,到底是运河促成了杭州的富庶,还是以富庶的杭州为代表的江浙粮仓引发了运河的漕运使命。历史告诉我们,历代统治者开凿、修筑大运河的一个最主要的目的,是为了漕运。无论运河在长长的历史中如何改道、如何截弯,它总是将最富庶的江南地带和北方的京师紧紧地维系在一起,成为历代中央政权统治的生命线,它为京畿运送粮食给养的最重要的功能也一直延续到清代。

“东南财赋地,江浙人文薮”,这句闻名遐迩的话的前半句,披露了江浙的财主身份。自唐代以后,两浙地区就逐渐成为中央财政的重要来源。唐代政府的财政收入,江南占总额的十分之九;宋代两浙路一跃成为经济中心,尤其是浙西地区,工商业发达,城市经济异常繁荣,是当时全国最发达的地区。据沈括《梦溪笔谈》记载,北宋岁运司供应京师米粮共600万石,两浙路上就交了150万石,相当于贡献了全国总额的四分之一。除了稻米,两浙路的蚕丝业、渔业以及手工业等行业,也成为当时全国的中心之一,无数的绢、绸、绫、绵作为赋税,源源不断地通过运河流向京师。熙宁十年杭州的商税高达18万3800余贯,不但远超江南其他大都市,还超过了首都汴京。膏腴千里的两浙,是名副其实的国家粮仓。

然则运河南端的杭州仅仅是满足运河漕运功能的一个输出者吗?非也。杭州的前身钱唐,在秦汉时期只是会稽郡中的一个县,隋朝江南运河开通后杭州成为大运河水运的一个起讫点,自此以后商貿日益发达,地位不断提高。因而可以说,杭州的崛起,受益于大运河者多矣。其实也不难想象,运河的运势与两浙的发展彼此联动,很多时候、很多环节都是互为因果的。

大运河孕育了沿岸城市商业的繁荣,而拥有繁华都市的两浙地区,很早就吸引了外国人的关注,是外国人了解中国、向世界推介中国、传播中国文化的最早的窗口之一。意大利著名的旅行家马可波罗曾称赞杭州为世界上“最富丽华贵的天城”。明代中后期,朝鲜人崔溥被海上风暴刮到了中国大陆,他从浙江台州的三门登陆,一路沿运河到了北京,受到了明帝的接见和赏赐,回去后写了一本《漂海录》,专门记载他在中国运河沿岸城镇的所见所闻。在他的笔下,当时的杭州是如此的惊艳:“接屋连廊,连衽成帷。市积金银,人拥锦绣。蛮樯海舶,栉立街衢;酒帘歌楼,咫尺相望。四时有不谢之花,八节有常绿之景。真所谓别作天地也。”崔溥作为一个文官,学的是中国的四书五经、诗词歌赋,他用骈文的形式、华丽的汉字,描绘出杭州的盛世繁华。文化传播的价值与意义,在于它不仅是内容本身,还是手段是载体,可以用来反映社会的方方面面。

从明代以来,大批传教士入华,杭州成为传教士在华活动的中心之一。杭州介于上海与宁波两个口岸的中点,来往上海与宁波当然可以走海路,但这一片海域常有海盗活动,所以走陆路并通过运河到杭州,便成为一个妥善的选择。浙江人未必知道,之江大学的前身崇信义塾,是1845年建立在宁波的一所基督教学校;杭州第十四中学的前身之一弘道女中,也是一所教会学校;杭州红十字会医院的前身则是1928年法国天主教会修女创办的仁爱医院。西来的传教士在浙江兴办教会学校、教会医院,初衷当然是出于传教的需要,但这些举措,客观上也培养了一批具有新思想、新知识、新技能的人才,对浙江乃至对中国的教育和医疗的早期现代化作出了积极的贡献。

一方面,运河给予两浙社会、经济、文化、教育、艺术等的滋养是多方面的。另一方面,如歌的岁月积淀出形态丰富的大运河文化,包含物质文化遗产、非物质文化遗产及自然文化遗产,而这些,在大运河浙江境内可谓琳琅满目。中国大运河,不仅是浙江文化遗产,也是世界文化遗产。

The genesis of the Grand Canal of China occurred in the Spring & Autumn period (700-221BC). Over about 2,800 years, the canal system has expanded and extended. Through new and maintenance projects, the Grand Canal is composed of three major sections in a total length of nearly 3,200 kilometers. Generally speaking, the south-north canal system plays a significant role in the economic and cultural prosperity along the canal cities and regions. Zhejiang has benefited a great deal from the canal.

In history, three major massive migrations occurred in China. The canal system played an important role in helping these refugees fleeing wars in the north reach the sough. The first massive migration happened toward the end of Western Jin. About 900,000 people fled the tumult to the south. The second migration wave occurred when An Lushan and Shi Siming rebelled against the Tang Dynasty. Nearly 2.5 million people migrated to the south from the north. The third massive migration wave took place in the last years of the Northern Song Dynasty. The royal house fled to the south and nearly 5 million people followed. The last migration wave tipped the economic and cultural balance toward the south. The Yangtze River regions boomed whereas the Yellow River basin in the north withered. Hangzhou became the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279). Zhejiang became the empires political, economic and cultural center. It is noteworthy that refugees in the north took different routes to the south, but the canal system played a key role in getting many of them to the south safely.

During this time, the regional culture in Zhejiang became part of the national mainstream. Men of letters and noble families in the north came to Zhejiang in the first and the last migration waves. In the first wave, the Wang and the Xie families settled down in Zhejiang. Among these great men of letters were Wang Xizhi, presumably the greatest calligrapher of ancient China, and Xie Lingyun who wrote Chinas first batch of nature poems. Their presence in Zhejiang gave birth to some most brilliant chapters in the history of Chinese culture.

In the Tang dynasty, hundreds of poets journeyed southward and flocked to the east of Zhejiang to enjoy the cultural and scenic beauty of the province. They wrote numerous poems. In the 1990s, a scholar named Zhu Yuebing in Zhejiang traced this phenomenon and concluded that there was a road of Tang poetry in eastern Zhejiang. This discovery put Zhejiang on the map of cultural Chinas.

The Ci-poetry flourished in the Northern Song and the Southern Song. The Ci-poems of the Song and the poems of the Tang are two pearls of Chinese poetry. A lot of Ci-poems that come down in history are ones written in Zhejiang or about Zhejiang. Affected by a Confucian school of idealist philosophy, these poems are free of effeminate touches and look fresh and wonderful.

The cultural benefits Zhejiang reaped were more than from the three migrations. In the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), the Tonghui River and the Huitong River, two manmade watercourses, were added to the existing canal system. Many playwrights and poets came to Zhejiang, including Guan Hanqing and Ma Zhiyuan who worked as a government official. In Zhejiang, new regional operas began to take shape under the influences of the combination of regional operas from the north and those from the south. Some best opera plays in the history of Chinas theater were written during this period. The culture benefited from the Grand Canal includes those works that appeal to both the refined and the popular tastes. It is calculated that 80 percent of the novels written in the Ming (1368-1644) and the Qing (1644-1911) were by novelists who were natives of canal regions and cities. These novels include some of the greatest masterpieces such as Journey to the West, The Romance of Three Kingdoms, Heroes of the Marshes, and A Dream of Red Mansions, and The Plum in the Golden Vase.

The cities along the Grand Canal such as Suzhou, Yangzhou, Huaian, Jining, Lingqing, Dezhou and Tianjin were all great trade centers. Since the Tang, Zhejiang was a key contributor to the state revenue. Jiangnan, a region in the south of the Yangtze River Delta which largely covers regions in the north of Zhejiang and south of Jiangsu, contributed 90% to the state revenue. In the Northern Song, Zhejiang was the empires economic center and most prosperous region. The silk industry, fishing industry and handicraft industry were the countrys leading ones. Zhejiang was the nations food basket. Scholars often wonder whether the Grand Canal made Hangzhou or Hangzhou made the Grand Canal. Influences were mutual.

Moreover, Hangzhou played a key role in international cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world from the Ming Dynasty on. The canal has been admired by many throughout history including Japanese monk Ennin (794–864), Persian historian Rashid al-Din (1247–1318), Korean official Choe Bu (1454–1504), and Italian missionary Matteo Ricci (1552–1610). In the Ming, Hangzhou was one of the major destinations of missionaries from the outside world. These missionaries set up schools and colleges and hospitals in cities such as Hangzhou and Ningbo. Though these schools and hospitals were designed for religious purposes, they did produce a large crowd of educated young people who contributed a great deal to Chinas modernization.

The Grand Canal has recreated Zhejiang economically, socially, culturally and artistically. Today Zhejiang is rich in intangible cultural heritage. The Grand Canal of China was inscribed onto the UNESCOs list of world heritage sites in 2014.

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