新东方英语·中学版 2017年8期


1. integrant [??nt?ɡr?nt] adj. 構成整体所必需的

2. staple [?ste?pl] n. (人们或某种动物的)主食

3. cuisine [kw??zi?n] n. (饭店中的)饭菜,菜肴

Nothing says Italy like its food, and nothing says Italian food like pasta. Pasta is an integrant1) part of Italy's food history. Wherever Italians immigrated they have brought their pasta along, so much so that today it can be considered a staple2) of international cuisine3). Unlike other ubiquitous4) Italian products like pizza and tomato sauce, which have a fairly recent history, pasta may have a much older pedigree5), going back hundreds—if not thousands—of years. To unravel6) the long and often complex history of this dish, we have to look at its origins and some of the myths surrounding it.

Many school children were taught that the Venetian7) merchant Marco Polo brought back pasta from his journeys to China. Some may have also learnt that Polo's was not a discovery, but rather a rediscovery of a product once popular in Italy among the Etruscans and the Romans. Well, Marco Polo might have done amazing things on his journeys, but bringing pasta to Italy was not one of them: noodles were already there in Polo's time.

There is indeed evidence of an Etrusco-Roman noodle made from the same durum wheat8) used to produce modern pasta: it was called "lagane" (origin of the modern word forlasagna9)). However this type of food, first mentioned in the 1st century AD, was not boiled, as it is usually done today, but ovenbaked. Ancient lagane had some similarities with modern pasta, but cannot be considered quite the same. The country will have to wait a few centuries for its most popular dish to make a further culinary leap forward.

Like so much of southern Italian life, the Arabic invasions of the 8th century heavily influenced regional cuisine. Today, the presence of Arabic people in the south of thepeninsula10) during the Middle Ages is considered the most likely reason behind the diffusion11) of pasta.

The modern word "macaroni" derives from the Sicilian term for kneading12) dough with energy, as early pasta making was often a laborious, day-long process. How these early dishes were served is not truly known, but many Sicilian pasta recipes still include typically middle eastern ingredients, such as raisins13) and cinnamon14), which may be witness to original, medieval recipes.

This early pasta was an ideal staple for Sicily and it easily spread to the mainland since durum wheat thrives in Italy's climate. Italy is still a major producer of this hard wheat.endprint

By the 1300's dried pasta was very popular for its nutrition and long shelf life, making it ideal for long ship voyages. Pasta made it around the globe during the voyages of discovery15) a century later. By that time different shapes of pasta had appeared and new technology made pasta easier to make. With these innovations pasta truly became a part of Italian life. However the next big advancement in the history of pasta would not come until the 19th century when pasta met tomatoes.

Although tomatoes were brought back to Europe shortly after their discovery in the New World, it took a long time for the plant to be considered edible. In fact tomatoes are a member of the nightshade16) family and rumors of tomatoes being poisonous continued in parts of Europe and its colonies until the mid-19th century. Therefore it was not until 1839 that the first pasta recipe with tomatoes was documented. However, shortly thereafter tomatoes took hold17), especially in the south of Italy. The rest of course is delicious history.

It is estimated that Italians eat over 60 pounds of pasta per person, per year easily beating Americans, who eat about 20 pounds per person. This love of pasta in Italy faroutstrips18) the large durum wheat production of the country; therefore Italy must import most of the wheat it uses for pasta. Today pasta is everywhere and can be found in dried and fresh varieties depending on what the recipes call for. The main problem with pasta today is the use of mass production to fill a huge worldwide demand. And while pasta is made everywhere, the product from Italy keeps to19) time-tested production methods that create a superior pasta.

Pasta: The Story of a Universal Food


4. ubiquitous [ju??b?kw?t?s] adj. 无所不在的;随处可见的

5. pedigree [?ped?ɡri?] n. 背景;出身;家史

6. unravel [?n?r?vl] vt. 揭开;揭示


许多学生在学校学到的是威尼斯商人马可·波罗从中国游历归来,带回了意面。 也有的学生可能了解到马可·波罗之举并不是一项新发现,而只不过是重新发现了一种曾在意大利的伊特鲁里亚人和罗马人中流行的美食。嗯,马可·波罗可能在他的游历中做了许多令人惊叹的事,但把意面带到意大利这件事却并不是其中一件——在马可·波罗的时代,意大利就已经有面条了。

伊特鲁里亚-罗马面条和现代意面都是同样的硬质小麦制成的,这一点确实有据可查。这种面条被称为lagane,现代词语lasagna (意为“千层面”)就是由该词衍生而来。然而,不同于面条现在的通常做法,这种公元1世纪时首次被记录下来的食物不是煮着吃的,而是烤着吃的。古代的lagane面条与现代的意面确有相似之处,但并不能混为一谈。意大利还要等上几百年才让这道最受欢迎的美食在烹调工艺上跃进一步。endprint










7. Venetian [v??ni??n] adj. 威尼斯的

8. durum wheat: 硬质小麦

9. lasagna [l??z?nj?] n. 千层面,一种传统的意面

10. peninsula [p??n?nsj?l?] n. 半岛

11. diffusion [d??fju??n] n. (人类学用语)(风俗习惯等跨文化群落的)传流

12. knead [ni?d] vt. 揉,捏(面团或其他食物)

13. raisin [?re?zn] n. 葡萄干

14. cinnamon [?s?n?m?n] n. 桂皮;肉桂

15. the voyages of discovery: 地理大發现,指15~17世纪时期,欧洲许多国家进行远洋探险,期间不仅发现了美洲大陆,还发现了通往亚洲的多条新航线。这次航海之旅不仅让欧洲控制了整个大海,更让人类对地球的认识掀开了崭新的一页。

16. nightshade [?na?t?e?d] n. 茄属植物。这类植物很多都有毒,只有少数可以食用。

17. take hold: 生根;固定下来;确立

18. outstrip [?a?t?str?p] vt. 超过;胜过

19. keep to: 遵守;固守endprint