GUIDE FOR AUTHORS
Types of paper
Contributions f alling into the following cate gories will be considered for publication:
Original research papers;re view articles;rapid communications;short communications;viewpoints;letters to the Editor;book reviews.
1.Research papers-original full-length research papers which have not been published pre viously,except in a preliminary form,and should not exceed 7,500 words (including allo wance for no more than 6 tables and illustrations).
2.Review articles-will be accepted in areas of topical interest,will normally focus on literature published o ver the previous five years,and should not exceed 10,000 words (including allowance for no more than 6 tables and illustrations).
3.Rapid communications-an original research paper reporting a major scientific result or finding with significant implications for the research community,designated by the Editor.
4.Short communications-Short communications of up to 3000 words,describing work that may be of a preliminary nature but which merits immediate publication.
5.Viewpoints-Authors may submit viewpoints of about 1200 words on any subject covered by the Aims and Scope.
6.Letters to the Editor-Letters are published from time to time on matters of topical interest.
Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission.Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ethics in Publishing
For information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www .elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/ethicalguidelines.
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential confict ofinterest including any financial,personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of be ginning the submitted work that could inappropriately inf uence,or be percei ved to inf uence,their work.See also http://www.elsevier.com/confictsofinterest.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis),that it is not under consideration for publication else where,that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out,and that,if accepted,it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form,in English or in any other language,without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition,deletion,or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue:Requests to add or remove an author,or to rearrange the author names,must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include:(a) the reason the name should be added or removed,or the author names rearranged and (b) written conf rmation (e-mail,fax,letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition,remo val or rearrangement.In the case of addition or removal of authors,this includes conf rmation from the author being added or remo ved.Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author,who must follow the procedure as described abo ve.Note that:(1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of an y such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue:Any requests to add,delete,or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Permission of the Society is required for resale or distrib ution outside the institution and for all other deri vative works,including compilations and translations (please consult email@example.com).If e xcerpts from other copyrighted works are included,the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article..
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who pro vided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefiy describe the role of the sponsor(s),if an y,in study design;in the collection,analysis and interpretation of data;in the writing of the report;and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding.
Language and language services
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted,but not a mixture of these).Authors who require information about language editing and cop yediting services pre-and post-submission please visit http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting or our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com for more information.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online.Use the following guidelines to prepare your article.Via the homepage of this journal(http://ees.elsevier.com/fshw) you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the v arious fles.The system automatically con verts source fles to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF v ersion of the article,which is used in the peer-review process.Please note that e ven though manuscript source fles are converted to PDF at submission for the re view process,these source fles are needed for further processing after acceptance.All correspondence,including notification of the Editor’s decision and requests for re vision,takes place by e-mail and via the author’s homepage,remo ving the need for a hardcopy paper trail.If you are unable to pro vide an electronic v ersion,please contact the editorial off ce prior to submission (E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org;Tel.(86)10-83155446-8061;Fax:(86)10-83155436).
Tables and figures may be presented with captions within the main body of the manuscript;if so,figures should additionally be uploaded as high resolution fles.
Use of wordprocessing software
It is important that the fle be saved in the nati ve format of the wordprocessor used.The text should be in single-column format.Keep the layout of the te xt as simple as possible.Most formatting codes will be remo ved and replaced on processing the article.In particular,do not use the wordprocessor’s options to justify text or to hyphenate words.However,do use bold face,italics,subscripts,superscripts etc.When preparing tables,if you are using a table grid,use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each ro w.Ifino grid is used,use tabs,not spaces,to align columns.The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier:http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication).Note that source fles of figures,tables and te xt graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text.See also the section on Electronic illustrations.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the “spell-check”and “grammar-check” functions of your wordprocessor.
If the LaT eX fle is suitable,proofs will be produced without rek eying the text.The article should preferably be written using Else vier’s document class“elsarticle”,or alternati vely any of the other recognized classes and formats supported in Elsevier’s electronic submissions system,for further information see http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/latex-ees-supported.The Else vier “elsarticle” LaT eX style fle package (including detailed instructions for LaT eX preparation) can be obtained from the Quickguide:http://www.elsevier.com/latex.It consists of the fle:elsarticle.cls,complete user documentation for the class fle,bibliographic style fles in various styles,and template fles for a quick start.
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections.Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1,1.1.2,...),1.2,etc.(the abstract is not included in section numbering).Use this numbering also for internal crossreferencing:do not just refer to “the text”.Any subsection may be given a brief heading.Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background,avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide suff cient detail to allow the work to be reproduced.Methods already published should be indicated by a reference:only rele vant modifications should be described.
A Theory section should e xtend,not repeat,the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work.In contrast,a Calculation section represents a practical de velopment from a theoretical basis.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should e xplore the significance of the results of the work,not repeat them.A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate.Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section,which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix,the y should be identified as A,B,etc.Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering:Eq.(A.1),Eq.(A.2),etc.;in a subsequent appendix,Eq.(B.1) and so on.Similarly for tables and figures:TableA.1;Fig.A.1,etc.
Essential title page information
· Title.Concise and informative.Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems.Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
· Author names and affiliations.Where the family name may be ambiguous(e.g.,a double name),please indicate this clearly .Present the authors’affliation addresses (where the actual work was done) belo w the names.Indicate all affliations with a lo wer-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address.Pro vide the full postal address of each affliation,including the country name,and,if available,the e-mail address of each author.
· Corresponding author.Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication,also post-publication.Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
· Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done,or was visiting at the time,a “Present address” (or“Permanent address”) may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name.The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main,affliation address.Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required.The abstract should state briefiy the purpose of the research,the principal results and major conclusions.An abstract is often presented separately from the article,so it must be able to stand alone.For this reason,References should be a voided,but if essential,then cite the author(s) and year(s).Also,non-standard or uncommon abbre viations should be avoided,but if essential the y must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Authors are invited to submit keywords associated with their paper.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article.Such abbre viations that are una voidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there,as well as in the footnote.Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not,therefore,include them on the title page,as a footnote to the title or otherwise.List here those indi viduals who provided help during the research (e.g.,providing language help,writing assistance or proof reading the article,etc.).
Nomenclature and units
Follow internationally accepted rules and con ventions:use the international system of units (SI).If other quantities are mentioned,give their equi valent in SI.Authors wishing to present a table ofinomenclature should do so on the second page of their manuscript.
Present simple formulae in the line ofinormal te xt where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms,e.g.,X/Y.In principle,variables are to be presented in italics.Po wers of e are often more conveniently denoted by e xp.Number consecuti vely any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly.Number them consecuti vely throughout the article,using superscript Arabic numbers.Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text,and this feature may be used.Should this not be the case,indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
· Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
· Save text in illustrations as “graphics” or enclose the font.
· Only use the following fonts in your illustrations:Arial,Courier,Times,Symbol.
· Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
· Use a logical naming convention for your artwork fles.
· Provide captions to illustrations separately.
· Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
· Submit each figure as a separate fle.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
You are urged to visit this site;some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used,when your electronic artwork is finalised,please “save as” or con vert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line dra wings,halftones,and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS:Vector drawings.Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”.
TIFF:color or grayscale photographs (halftones):al ways use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF:Bitmapped line drawings:use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF:Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale):a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Off ce application (Word,PowerPoint,Excel) then please supply “as is”.
Please do not:
· Supply fles that are optimised for screen use (lik e GIF,BMP,PICT,WPG);the resolution is too low;
· Supply fles that are too low in resolution;
· Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork fles are in an acceptable format (TIFF,EPS or MS Off ce fles) and with the correct resolution.If,together with your accepted article,you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure,at no additional charge,that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g.,ScienceDirect and other sites) re gardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption.Supply captions separately,not attached to the figure.A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration.Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Number tables consecuti vely in accordance with their appearance in the text.Place footnotes to tables belo w the table body and indicate them with superscript lo wercase letters.Avoid v ertical rules.Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full.Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list,b ut may be mentioned in the te xt.If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either“Unpublished results” or “Personal communication” Citation of a reference as“in press” implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum,the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed.Any further information,if known (DOI,author names,dates,reference to a source publication,etc.),should also be given.Web references can be listed separately (e.g.,after the reference list) under a dif ferent heading if desired,or can be included in the reference list.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words ‘this issue’ are added to any references in the list(and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
This journal has standard templates a vailable in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www .endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp).Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages,authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.
Text:Indicate references by number(s) in square brack ets in line with the te xt.The actual authors can be referred to,but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example:“.....as demonstrated[3,6].Barnaby and Jones obtained a different result....”
List:Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 J.v an der Geer,J.A.J.Hanraads,R.A.Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article,J.Sci.Commun.163 (2000) 51-59.
Reference to a book:
 W.Strunk Jr.,E.B.White,The Elements of Style,third ed.,Macmillan,New York,1979.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 G.R.Mettam,L.B.Adams,How to prepare an electronic version of your article,in:B.S.Jones,R.Z.Smith (Eds.),Introduction to the Electronic Age,E-Publishing Inc.,New York,1999,pp.281-304.
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus journal abbreviations:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html;List of title word abbreviations:http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php;CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service):http://www.cas.org/sent.html.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for re view.Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One Author designated as corresponding Author:
· E-mail address
· Full postal address
· Telephone and fax numbers
All necessary fles have been uploaded
· K eywords
· All figure captions
· All tables (including title,description,footnotes)
· Manuscript has been “spellchecked” and “grammar-checked”
· References are in the correct format for this journal
· All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text,and vice versa
· Permission has been obtained for use of cop yrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
· Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on theW eb(free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
· If only color on the Web is required,black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For an y further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.
Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents.The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication.The assigned DOI never changes.Therefore,it is an ideal medium for citing a document,particularly ‘Articles in press’ because the y have not yet received their full bibliographic information.The correct format for citing a DOI is sho wn as follo ws (example taken from a document in the journalPhysics LettersB):
When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web,thye are guaranteed never to change.
One set of page proofs (as PDF fles) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or,a link will be pro vided in the e-mail so that authors can do wnload the fles themselv es.Else vier no w pro vides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated;for this you will need to do wnload Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader.Instructions on how to annotate PDF fles will accompan y the proofs (also given online).The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/systemreqs.If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function,you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail.Please list your corrections quoting line number .If,for an y reason,this is not possible,then mark the corrections and an y other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by f ax,or scan the pages and e-mail,or by post.Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting,editing,completeness and correctness of the text,tables and figures.Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately-please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication:please check carefully before replying,as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed.Proofreading is solely your responsibility.Note that Else vier may proceed with the publication of your article ifino response is received.
The corresponding author,at no cost,will be pro vided with a PDF fle of the article via e-mail.For an extra charge,paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication.
The PDF fle is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal co ver image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.
More information about article offprint is available here:http://webshop.elsevier.com/
You can track your submitted article at http://www.elsevier.com/track-submission.
You can track your accepted article at http://www .elsevier.com/trackarticle.
You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com