水肥一体化技术对叶用枸杞产量及水肥利用率的影响

2019-06-10 09:30:40 天津农业科学2019年6期

杨柳 南雄雄 王昊 康超

摘    要:为了探究水肥一体化技术对叶用枸杞产量及养分利用率的影响,本文以叶用枸杞‘宁杞9号为试验材料,研究了常规沟灌施肥(CK),水肥一体化施肥(T1),水肥一体化减量施肥(灌水量、施肥量均为水肥一体化施肥的80%,T2)3种灌溉施肥方式对叶用枸杞产量、水分利用率、养分利用率及经济效益的影响。结果表明,水肥一体化技术在施肥量和灌水量均低于传统施肥的条件下,T1、T2 的产量分别比CK提高了69.3%和4.6%,水分利用率分别提高了150.6%和93.1%,氮磷钾吸收率分别比CK提高了14.52,5.72,16.65个百分点和1.10,0.96,2.81个百分点,每公顷的经济效益分别增加了91 217元和8 730元,产投比分别提高了72.3%和33.0%。综合而言,水肥一体化技术可提高叶用枸杞的产量、水分和养分利用率以及经济效益,其中以水肥一体化施肥(T1,即N 496.05 kg·hm-2、P 483.2 kg·hm-2、K 342.15 kg·hm-2)效果最好。

关键词:水肥一体化技术;叶用枸杞;产量;养分利用率

中图分类号:S567;S147         文献标识码:A          DOI 编码:10.3969/j.issn.1006-6500.2019.06.014

Abstract:To explore the effect of integration technology of water and fertilizer on yield and nutrient utilization of leaf utilization wolfberry, the experiment was conducted with 'Ningqi 9' as the experimental material, three treatments were designed, including conventional irrigation and fertilizer (CK), the integration of water and fertilizer (T1), and 80% reduction fertilizer (T2), the yield, water utilization efficiency, nutrient utilization and the economic benefits of leaf-used wolfberry were analyzed. The results showed that comparing with CK, the integration treatment of water and fertilizer (T1, T2) had fewer amount of fertilizer and water, but the yield of T1 and T2 was increased by 69.3% and 4.6% , the water utilization efficiency was increased by 150.6% and 93.1%, the N, P, K uptake were increased by 14.52,5.72,16.65 and 1.10,0.96,2.81 percentage points, the economic benefits per hectare were increased by 91 217 yuan and 8 730 yuan, the input-output ratio was increased by 72.3% and 33.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the integrated technology improved the yield, water utilization efficiency, leaf-used Chinese wolfberry nutrient utilization efficiency and economic benefits, in which T1 treatment (N 496.05 kg·hm-2, P 483.2 kg·hm-2, K 342.15 kg·hm-2) had the best effects.

Key words: integration technology of water and fertilizer; leaf utilization wolfberry; yield; nutrient utilization

葉用枸杞又称菜枸杞,属茄科枸杞属多年生落叶灌木[1-3],在本草纲目中枸杞的嫩茎叶被称为“天精草”,是一味重要的中药,性凉味甘苦,具有清热止渴、清火名目、抗衰老之功效[4]。枸杞叶片含有丰富的蛋白质、维生素、氨基酸和微量元素等多种营养成分,还含有多糖、甜菜碱、黄酮类化合物、生物碱等多种活性物质,具有很高的营养保健价值,其可做蔬菜,也可做茶[5-8],是一种“药食同源”功能型保健蔬菜。叶用枸杞不开花结果,只采收叶芽作为食用部分,叶芽必须保持鲜嫩、无木质化,其整个生育期必须保证充足的水分和养分,故合理施肥管理是关键。传统种植模式,大水大肥,不利于作物生长且浪费资源和污染环境,目前国家颁布了“一控两减三基本”的相关法规政策,“十三五”期间提出化肥零增长,倡导水肥一体化技术的推广。水肥一体化技术又称灌溉施肥技术,是一种节水、节肥、高产、高效的现代农业工程技术[9-10],是在滴灌条件下,根据土壤的水分和养分情况,按照作物的需水需肥规律,将水肥溶液直接输送到作物根系范围的土壤中,供作物吸收[11],不会破坏土壤结构,土壤内部水肥气热保持适宜作物生长的状态,渗漏损失小,从而大大提高了水和肥的利用效率[12-13]。水肥一体化技术实现了资源利用的最大化、经济效益最大化以及产量最大化。