参考网


Nitrogen Foam Profile Control for Heavy Oil Reservoir

2014-03-21 02:35:26 《Energy Science and Technology》 2013年4期

ZHANG Lin

Abstract

In view of the character of heavy oil reservoir in Shengli oilfield under thermal production, the analysis that heterogeneity of oil reservoir, viscosity of crude oil, oil thickness, recovery efficiency of recoverable reserves and distance to the oil-water boundary affect the effectiveness of nitrogen foam profile control was made by reservoir numerical simulation and statistical interpretation of production effect of some wells which had being implemented nitrogen foam profile control. On that basis, a prediction model of nitrogen foam profile control technology was founded by means of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and the reservoir conditions which adapt to nitrogen foam profile are presented. The results The adaptive research of nitrogen foam profile control in steam stimulation reservoir can enhance the pertinence and effectiveness of nitrogen foam profile control technology and improve the efficiency of multiround steam stimulation in heavy oil reservoir.

Key words: Nitrogen foam; Numerical simulation; Field statistics; Adaptability to reservoir; Fuzzy evaluation

INTRODUCTION

Steam stimulation of heavy oil reservoir development accounted for more than 95% of the thermal oil recovery reservoir in Shengli oilfield. Most of them has entered medium or late stage. The differences of the oil-water mobility and formation heterogeneity lead to serious steam channeling, low steam sweep efficiency. In conclusion the remaining oil which is rich in the low permeability zone cannot be effectively utilized and the development of the reservoir is poor. Nitrogen foam profile control technology has been widely used to solve these problems. Nitrogen foam (Wang & Li, 2002; Li, He & Tang, 2006) has high apparent viscosity which can improve the oil-water mobility ratio, improve sweep efficiency of steam and displacement efficiency so that the effect of steam stimulation of heavy oil reservoir can be improved. But the field application indicates that the effect of nitrogen foam profile control can be affected by reservoir conditions and formation fluid properties seriously. Therefore researching reservoir adaptability of nitrogen foam profile technology has important guiding significance in exerting the excellent blocking performance of foam, avoiding the risk that may arise in the process in the implementation process and the largescale applications of nitrogen foam profile.

1 INFLUENCING FACTORS ANALYSIS FOR NITROGEN FOAM PROFILE CONTROL

There are many types of heavy oil reservoirs in Shengli oilfield, and the geological conditions are complex, including the thick sandstone heavy oil reservoir with active edge and bottom water, the thin layer glutenite Super Heavy reservoir with edge water, thin interbedded sandstone heavy oil reservoir, the carbonate fractured Buried Hill in Super Heavy Oil Reservoirs with active edge and bottom water and the small fault block sandstone heavy oil reservoir. The analysis of nitrogen foam profile influencing factors is based on numerical simulation prediction and field statistics. In view of the character of heavy oil reservoir in Shengli oilfield,four types of oil reservoirs are mainly considered in the Numerical Simulation (Li, 2008), including the weak edge and bottom water, strong bottom water, strong edge water and multiple rounds throughput. Site statistics are aimed at the 402 wells in Gudao, Gudong Binnan and Xianhe oil production plant in Shengli Oilfield during 2006-2010, analyzing the effect on production, combining reservoir geology, develop dynamic, fluid properties, and construction techniques.

1.1 Impact of the Reservoir Heterogeneity on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Foam Profile

Having selected different permeability ratios (Yang, Lin, & Liu, 2004), and comparatived cycle incremental oil of the measures well, calculated results and field statistical results show that, nitrogen foam is suitable for heavy oil reservoir which has a certain heterogeneity. But yield increase of crude oil decreased sharply after the permeability ratio is greater than 4:1 which means nitrogen foams ability of blocking large pore is still limited. Once the water channeling channels formed in large quantities, it is difficult to achieve a comprehensive and effective closure.

1.2 Impact of the Oil Viscosity on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Foam Profile

Select the oil whose viscosity is between 1000 to 100000mPa.s (50 ℃), forecast the effect of profile modification and collect the site statistics. Results show that (Figure 2), with the increase of viscosity (Liu, Liu,& Li, 2009), cycle incremental oil reduced. When the viscosity is below 20000 mPa.s, the cycle incremental oil is greater than 800t. When the viscosity is between 20000mPa.s to 40000 mPa.s, the cycle incremental oil is between 600 to 800t. When the viscosity is higher than 40000 mPa.s, the measures are usually valid for a short time and the cycle incremental oil is less than 600t.

1.3 Impact of the Oil Layer Thickness on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Foam Profile

The difference in density and viscosity between steam and crude oil often leads to steam gravity onlap, making the steam swept volume reduce. So contrast nitrogen foam profile effect when reservoir thickness is between 2 ~ 20 m. The results show that: the foam profile has significantly improved the crude oil production. With the oil layer thickness increasing, the cycle oil production is also increasing. But stimulation ratio reduced after 12m(Stimulation ratio = (production measures - measures before production) / measures before production). For thin layer, although the gravity onlap phenomenon is not serious, steam flow decreased because of the foam, which effectively suppress the fingering of steam and steam channeling, so that the steam swept volume increases,but still have the effect of increasing oil. However, to the reservoir thinner than 4 m, the results are not very satisfactory due to poor own the material basis. To the reservoir thicker than 20 m, the serious foam gravity segregation phenomenon weakens plugging strength. So the effect of profile control will deteriorate too.

1.4 Impact of the Recoverable Reserves Recovery Ratio on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Foam Profile

Site statistical results (Table 2) show that, the cycle Incremental oil increased with the recoverable reserves recovery ratio (Yu, Liu, & Zhang, 2012) increases. When the recoverable reserves recovery ratio is greater than 80%, the cycle incremental oil significantly reduced. Therefore, the nitrogen foam is an effective means to improve the efficiency of multi-round steam stimulation in heavy oil reservoir.

1.5 Impact of Distance Away From the Oil-Water Boundary on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Foam Profile

The steam stimulation is a long-term antihypertensive mining process. The cycle oil production and the length of production valid period are closely related to reservoir pressure. So the effect of nitrogen foam profile has a great relationship with the distance away from the oil-water boundary. Contrast the effects of nitrogen foam profile production when the distance away from the oil-water boundary (Wang & Dang, 2010) is between 50 ~ 1000 m. The results show that, if the distance away from the oilwater boundary is too short, the blocking strength of the foam is not sufficient to suppress edge water propulsion and the efficiency is not obvious. To the production wells which are too far away, the reservoir pressure is relatively low. So the anti-handling ability of stimulation wells is not strong even if injected foam and the efficiency of foam profile is also not very significant. Numerical simulation predicted results and live statistics both show that, the incremental oil is higher when the distance ranges from 300 m to 500 m. Therefore, choose the oil and water wells whose distance away from the boundary ranges from 300 m to 500 m to take measures so that the efficiency of nitrogen foam profile is significant.

2 F U Z Z Y C O M P R E H E N S I V E EVALUATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF NITROGEN FOAM PROFILE

This article is aimed at using the fuzzy transform principle and the principle of maximum degree of membership to form a fuzzy evaluation method of nitrogen foam profile control technology application effect on the basis of the numerical simulation predictions and site statistical analysis and research results. This method takes into account the mathematical relationship between the profile control effect of each of the major factors and impact indicators, structures evaluation matrix on the basis of the scene and forecast data, uses the expert scoring method to determine the weight set for evaluating and decides when to apply the nitrogen foam profile control technology in the stimulation wells.

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (Meng, Chen,& Zhang, 2006) is to apply the fuzzy transform principle and the principle of maximum degree of membership, consider the various factors associated with the evaluation object and make comprehensive evaluation. Use the theory of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to choose the nitrogen foam profile wells according to the main factors and criteria of the test wells production. Major steps of using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is as shown in Figure 3.

(a) Determine the evaluation object. Generally we call things that are evaluated as evaluation object. The evaluation object of this study was the effectiveness of nitrogen foam profile control. The results were showed by a fuzzy set V which was made up by a group of comments. While all the factors that affected evaluation results composed a factor set U.

(b) Determine the comment set: V = (v1, v2···vn). According to the evaluation hierarchies of evaluation object, the corresponding comment set: (best, better, medium, worse, worst), or it could be made up of discretization numerical in a certain interval, the numbers represented membership grade of the comment. Evaluation result Y~ = (y1, y2···ym) was a fuzzy subset of V, while yi stood for the evaluation degree of evaluation object by vi .

(c) Determine the factor set: U = (u1, u2···un) .A set which consisted of all the factors that affected the result was called factor set, for example, we could evaluate the evaluation object on the basis of the factor ui , as a result, it was called the single factor evaluation ri = (r11, r12···rim).

According to the field statistics analysis and numerical simulation forecast result of nitrogen foam profile control in Shengli oilfield, those factors such as heterogeneity of oil reservoir, viscosity of crude oil, oil thickness, recovery efficiency of recoverable reserves and distance to the oil-water boundary played an important role in profile control implementation, so we recorded the factor set for this study as U = (u1, u2, u3, u4, u5) = [ heterogeneity of oil reservoir, viscosity of crude oil, oil thickness, recovery efficiency of recoverable reserves, distance to the oil-water boundary].

(d) Determine ri to form evaluation array: R = [rij]n×m .

(e) Determine weight set: X = (x1, x2···xn).We could get xi by evaluation factor ui, a set which made up of xi called weight set or weight vector.

We invited some experts to give their scores then calculated the average score, the result showed the influence weight of five factors as following:

According to maximum membership principle, max(b1, b2, b3, b4, b5), the conclusion that was the result of the steam soak well nitrogen foam profile control application: vi (i = 1,2,3,4,5).

On the basis of analysis the five factors by the statistics and numerical simulation technology, we formed an open data source and combined the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to build prediction model and develop prediction software of nitrogen foam profile control technique adaptive.

3. FIELD APPLICATION AND EFFECT EVALUATION

The nitrogen foam profile control technique and the prediction model was applied to the Well 402 of Shengli oilfield from 2006 to 2010, the prediction result accord with the Well 350, and the coincidence rate is 87.06%.

Under the guide of the prediction model of nitrogen foam profile control technique application, nitrogen foam profile control has been carried out in many blocks since 2009, the average per well production increment was 649.15t, and well composite water cut has dropped 10.2%, gas oil ratio increased by 0.271.

Since April 2005, the production well GDD0N506 has been produced for more than 1730 days, and it was in the end of the production period at the moment, water percentage raised to 98.5%.On May 11th, 2010, the well was started up, before the profile control technique was applied, average daily fluid production rate was 56.6m3, average daily oil production rate was 2.4t, water percentage was 95.7%. However, after this technique was used, the average daily fluid production rate was 55.6m3, average daily oil production rate was 18.5t, water percentage was 66.6%, cumulative oil production was 2533.8t, and cumulative oil was 1835.4 t.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

Li, R. S., He, J. H., & Tang, Y. M. (2006). Experiment on the mchanism of ntrogen-assisted seam simulation in havy ol reservoirs. Journal of Oil and Gas Technology, 28(1), 72-75.

Li, Y. (2008). Applicability of nitrogen-foam profile control technology in Chengdao Oilfield. Shipbuilding of China, 49(Supplement 2), 198-202.

Liu, R. J., Liu, H. Q., & Li. X. S. (2009). Study on the adaptability of nitrogen foam flooding for heavy oil reservoir in Shengli oilfield. Journal of Basic Science and Engineering, 17(1), 105-111.

Meng, H. X., Chen, D. C., & Zhang, Z. P. (2006). The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of plug-releasing for injection wells. Journal of Guangxi University (Natural Science Edition), 31(Supplement), 153-159.

Wang, S. L., & Dang, X. J. (2010). Nitrogen foam restrain the edge water of heavy oil reservoir. Chemical Engineering & Equipment, 10, 60-61.

Wang, W. J., & Li, Y. (2002). Improve steam soaking performance by injecting nitrogen. Journal of Southwest Petroleum Institute, 24(3), 46-49.

Yang, G. L., Lin, Y. Q., & Liu, J. L. (2004). Suitability study of nitrogen-foam flood in heavy oil reservoir-an example of Liaohe oilfield. Xinjiang Petroleum Geology, 25(2), 188-190.

Yu, H. Y., Liu, H. Q., & Zhang, C. X. (2012). Numerical simulation of nitrogen assisted cyclic steam stimulation for super heavy oil reservoirs. Special Oil & Gas, 19(2), 76-78.

ABOUT CSCANADA

CSCanada includes 15 international non-profit Journals dedicated to advance academic achievements and research information around the world. The host organizations of our journals are Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture (CAOOC), Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC), with their headquarter in Montreal, Canada. Registered in Quebec in March, 2005, CAOOC and CRDCSC are committed to scientific research and spreading eastern and western cultures.

CSCanada enables discovery, access, and preservation of scholarly content by serving as an educator, leader, spokesperson and professional association to achieve the following goals:

? Help scholars, researchers, and students discover, use,

and build upon a wide range of scholarly content on a dynamic platform that increases productivity and facilitates new forms of scholarship.

? Help libraries connect patrons to vital content while

increasing shelf-space savings and lowering costs.

? Help academic databases connect patrons to vital

content so that persons can inquire and use the information conveniently and duly.

? Help various academic institutions reach new

audiences and preserve their scholarly content for future generations Promote the international cooperation of scholars.

It will be a wise decision to choose our journals because of the quality and value we provide and promise as following:

? Promoting International Cooperation CSCanada is working with over 1000 scholars, researchers, professors and students. As authors, readers, editorial board members, professionals who have accomplished in various academic fields all over the world work together to rich and improve the contents of our journals. CSCanada also cooperates with internationally renowned academic databases, libraries, academies, associations and other institutions to maximize the global reach of our journals.

? Comprehensive and Recognized Subject Category CSCanada includes 14 journals, diversifying in most disciplines currently used in academic circle, which makes our journals provide a complete picture of worldwide influential research. In the future, CSCanada will ceaselessly increase and refine its subject category so that more academic voices can be heard.

? Easy and Convenient to Inquire and Use

All journals of Cscanada use Open Journal Systems(OJS). Its very convenient for everyone to view articles or journals for free by directly visit CSCanada website: www.cscanada.org and www.cscanada.net.

? Databases

All journals of Cscanada have been indexed by famous academic databases that readers and users can easily find.

OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS

One key request of researchers across the world is unrestricted access to research publications. Open access gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published work. It also enhances indexing, retrieval power and eliminates the need for permissions to reproduce and distribute content. All CSCanada journals are fully committed to the Open Access Initiative and will provide free access to all articles as soon as they are published.

SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS

We strongly recommend you read this in full if you have not previously submitted a contribution to CSCanada. We also suggest that before submission you familiarize yourself with CSCanadas style and content by reading the journals, either in print or online, especially if you have not submitted to our journals recently. Formats

All manuscripts should be sent by email as attachments to relative email address or submitted via the online system and should be typed in single line spacing and 10 pt.

? Research Articles

Research Articles are innovative reports whose conclusions represent a substantial advance in the understanding of a significant problem and have directly, far-reaching implications.

Research Articles include an abstract, an introduction, up to 20 figures or tables, sections with brief subheadings. Materials and Methods should usually be included which will also be needed to support the papers conclusions.

? Reports

Reports are short articles of creative research focused on an outstanding finding whose importance means that it will be of interest to scientists in other fields. They should have less than 30 references.

They begin with a fully referenced paragraph, of about 200 words, (definitely no more than 300 words) aimed at readers in other disciplines. The letters (up to ~ 5000 words including references, notes and captions or ~ 5 printed pages) should include an abstract, an introductory paragraph, up to six figures or tables. Materials and Methods should usually be included, which should be needed to support the papers conclusions.

? Reviews Reviews describe new developments of interdisciplinary significance and highlight future directions. They include an abstract, an introduction that outlines the main theme, brief subheadings, and an outline of important unresolved questions. A maximum of 50 references is suggested. Most Reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered.

? Other contributions to CSCanada CSCanada also publishes News and Comment, Correspondence, Opinion, Book & Arts, Futures, News and Views, Perspectives, Insights, Outlooks, Analyses, Hypotheses, and Technology features. Please visit www. cscanada.net Manuscript Selection

Manuscripts should be clear and simple so that they are accessible to readers in other disciplines and to readers for whom English is not their first language. Authors are notified of decisions by e-mail. Repeated submissions of the same manuscript will not be acknowledged. CSCanada treats all submitted manuscripts as confidential documents. Our peer review process is also confidential and identities of reviewers are not released. Research papers that are selected for in-depth review are evaluated by at least two outside referees. Reviewers are contacted before being sent a paper and asked to return comments within 1 to 2 weeks for most papers. We are able to expedite the review process significantly for papers that require rapid assessment. Selected papers are edited to improve accuracy and clarity and for length. Papers cannot be resubmitted over a disagreement on interest or relative merit. If a paper was rejected on the basis of serious reviewer error, resubmission may be considered. In some cases, reviewers are satisfied that a papers conclusions are adequately supported by the data presented, but the general interest of the findings is not sufficient to justify publication in CSCanada. In such a case, the authors will be offered the opportunity for publication with additional review required when reviewers have asked for supplementary experiments during revision. In this case again, reviewers and editors may find an appropriately worded version of the paper to be acceptable for publication without further in depth review.

CSCanada makes decisions about submitted papers as rapidly as possible. All manuscripts are handled electronically throughout the consideration process. Authors are usually informed within a week if the paper is not being considered.

MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION

Manuscripts are preferred to be presented in the following order:

? Title

? Abstract and Keywords

? Text

? End Notes

? References

? Appendices

? Figure Legends

? Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes)

? Figures.

Title

Titles do not exceed two lines in print. This equates to 90 characters (including spaces) for Letters or 75 characters(including spaces) for Research Articles. Titles do not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about.

Abstract

We suggest each manuscript should accompany a structured abstract to explain to the general reader why the research was done and why the results are significant. A structured abstract should include such contents: the purpose of the research, the materials and methods and the results. Please do not include citations or undefined abbreviations in the abstract. The preferred length of the abstract is less than 300.

Text

Research articles should fill no more than 30 pages, and Letters no more than 5 pages. A typical Letter to CSCanada contains about 5000 words of text (including the first paragraph of Letters, figure legends, reference list and the methods section if applicable) and four small display items (figures and/or tables) with brief legends. A composite figure (with several panels) usually needs to take about half a page, equivalent to about 600 words, in order for all the elements to be visible. Our preferred format for is APA and MSWord is also acceptable. We prefer the use of a ‘standard font, preferably 10-point Times New Roman. For mathematical symbols, Greek letters and other special characters, use normal text or Symbol font. Word Equation Editor/Math Type should be used only for formulae that cannot be produced using normal text or Symbol font. When you quote some paper in your article please follow the APA format. For detail information please visit http://www.apastyle.org/

End Notes

End notes are brief and follow the reference list. Papers containing supplementary information contain a statement after the reference list:

Acknowledgements should be brief, and should not include thanks to anonymous referees and editors, inessential words, or effusive comments. Acknowledgements can contain grant and contribution numbers.

Author Contributions: authors are required to include a statement to specify the contributions of each coauthor. The statement can be up to several sentences long, describing the tasks of individual authors referred to by their initials.

References

References are each numbered, ordered sequentially as they appear in the text, methods summary, tables, boxes, figure legends, online-only methods in our nature science and engineering journals. When cited in the text, reference numbers are superscript, not in brackets unless they are likely to be confused with a superscript number. Only one publication can be listed for each number. We preferred articles that have been published or submitted to a named publication in the reference list; papers in preparation should be mentioned in the text with a list of authors (or initials if any of the authors are co-authors of the present contribution). Published conference abstracts, numbered patents and preprints on recognized servers may be included in reference lists, but text, grant details and acknowledgements may not. Please follow the style below in the published edition of CSCanada in preparing reference lists.

We advise the authors to use the APA style to write the references list. You can visit http://www.apastyle.org for detail information. There are some examples for APA style.

? Books

One author:

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Two to seven authors:

Cargill, O., Charvat, W., & Walsh, D. D. (1966). The publication of academic writing. New York: Modern Language Association.

More than seven authors:

Cooper, L., Eagle, K., Howe, L., Robertson, A., Taylor, D., Reims, H., . . . Smith, W.A. (1982). How to stay younger while growing older: Aging for all ages. London: Macmillan.

No author given:

Experimental psychology. (1938). New York: Holt.

No publication date given:

Smith, J. (n.d.). Morality in masquerade. London: Churchill.

An organization or institution as “author”: University of minnesota. (1985). Social psychology. minneapolis: University of minnesota Press.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

An editor as “author”: Updike, J. (Ed.). (1999). The best American short stories of the century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

An edition of an authors work:

Brockett, O. (1987). History of the theatre (5th ed.).

Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

A translation:

Freud, S. (1970). An outline of psychoanalysis (J.

Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton (Original work published 1940)

A work in a series:

Cousins, M. (1984). Michel foucault. Theoretical Traditions in the social sciences. New York: St. Martins Press.

A work in several volumes:

Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977-1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4). New York: Plenum Press.

Conference proceedings:

Schnase, J.L., & Cunnius, E.L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings of CSCL 95: The First InternationalConference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chapter in an edited book:

Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children. In B. F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.

? Articles

Journal / periodical (continuous pagination):

Prasart Nuangchalerm (2011). In-service science teachespedagogical content knowledge, Studies in Sociology of Science, 2(2), 35-39.

Journal / periodical (non-continuous pagination):

Sawyer, J. (1966). Measurement and prediction, Clinical and statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66(3), 178-200.

Journal article with three to seven authors:

Huang, Yanbo, Lan, Yubin, Hoffmann,W. C., & Lacey, R. E. (2011). A pixel-level method for multiple imaging sensor data fusion through artificial neural networks. Advances in Natural Science, 4(1), 1-13.

Journal article more than seven authors:

Akaria, Z., Hussin, Z. H., Zakaria, Z., Noordin, N. B., Hilmie M. Z., Sawal, B. M., Saad, S. F.,...Kamil, S. B. O. (2009). E-filing system practiced by inland revenue board (IRB): Perception towards Malaysian Taxpayers. Cross-cultural Communication, 5(4).10-20.

Newspaper:

Monson, M. (1993, September 16). Urbana firm obstacle to office project. The Champaign-Urbana NewsGazette, pp. 1, 8.

Magazine:

Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy wont help most kids. Science News, 159, 292.

Review:

Gleick, E. (2000, December 14). The burdens of genius[Review of the book The Last Samurai by H. DeWitt]. Time, 156, 171.

Article in a reference book or encyclopedia - signed

and unsigned:

Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

Islam. (1992). In The New Encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 22, pp. 1-43). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

A work in a collection or anthology:

Jesrani, P. J. (1998). Working turn tables. In N. Bhatia, S. Dhand, & V. Rupaleria (Eds.), Throwing a great party(pp. 19-48). Chicago: NT Publishers.

Shapcott, T. (1980). Margaret atwoods surfacing. In K. L. Goodwin (Ed.), Commonwealth literature in the curriculum (pp. 86). South Pacific Association of Common-wealth Literatures and Language Studies.

Paper published as part of the proceedings of a

conference:

Nicol, D. M., & Liu X. (1997). The dark side of risk(What your mother never told you about time warp). In Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Simulation, Lockenhaus, Austria, 10-13 June 1997 (pp. 188-195). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

? Dissertation

Obtained from university:

Carlson, W. R. (1977). Dialectic and rhetoric in pierre bayle. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Yale University, USA.

Obtained from Dissertations and Theses database:

Mancall, J. C. (1979). Resources used by high school students in preparing independent study projects: a bibliometric approach (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAT 7905069)

An abstract from DAI:

Delgado, V. (1997). An interview study of native american philosophical foundations in education. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A. Humanities and Social Sciences, 58(9), 3395.

? Other materials

Patent:

Islam. (1992). In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 22, pp. 1-43). Chicago: Encyclopedia Lemelson, J. H.(1981). U.S. Patent No. 4,285,338. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Video or DVD (motion pictures):

Jesrani, P. J. (1998). Working turn tables. In N. Bhatia, S. Dhand, & V. Rupaleria (Eds.), Mass, J. B. (Producer),& Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis [Motion picture]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Television program:

Pratt, C. (Executive Producer). (2001, December 2). Face the nation [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Personal communications (email messages, interviews,

lectures, and telephone conversations):

Because the information is not retrievable it should not appear in the reference list. In your paper they should look as follows: J. Burnitz (personal communication, September 20, 2000) indicated that.… or In a recent interview (J. Burnitz, personal communication, September 20, 2000).

? Books (Online)

An entire electronic book retrieved from a database:

Murray, T. H. (1996). The worth of a child. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from netLibrary database.

An entire electronic book with direct link to item:

Bryant, P. (1999). Biodiversity and conservation. Retrieved from http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/ bio65/Titlpage.htm

An article or chapter in an electronic book

Symonds, PM. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation(pp. 11-22). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS database.

Entire electronic technical or research report -

available on the web:

Russo, A.C., & Jiang, H.J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief #17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research& Quality: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/ statbriefs/sb17.jsp

Paper from the proceedings of a conference:

Miller, S. (2000). Introduction to manufacturing simulation. In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference, (pp. 63-66). Retrieved from http://www.informs-sim.org/wsc00papers/011.PDF

? Journal Articles (Online)

New style guidelines use the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) which is an assigned alpha-numeric code that usually appears on the article or in the database record. If the DOI is not provided, enter the citation information using Cross/Ref Simple Text Query. The retrieval date is no longer required.

Article with DOI assigned:

Demir, Müge (2011). Using nonverbal communication

in politics. Canadian Social Science, 7(5), 1-14. DOI:10.3968/J.css.1923669720110705.19

Article from electronic journal (no print version):

Phouphet KYOPHILAVONG,Jeff BENNETT(2011). Willingness to pay for cleaning up road dust in vientiane. Retrieved from International Business and Management, http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ibm/ article/view/j.ibm.1923842820110302.070

Article with no DOI: (include URL for journal website

not database)

Tyrer, Pat (2011). Food and fantasy as reflection of female repression in like water for chocolate. Studies

in Literature and Language, 3(2), 1-5. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/sll/article/ view/1992

Article - preprint version

Shi,Guangren (in press). Finite volume method for solving a modified 3-D 3-Phase Black-Oil. Journal of Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/6305/1/NRC-50738.pdf

Newspaper article from an online database:

Altman, L.K. (2001, January 18). Mysterious illnesses often turn out to be mass hysteria. New York Times. Retrieved from the ProQuest Newspapers database.

A newspaper article from newspapers website:

Cary, B. (2001, June 18). Mentors of the mind. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes. com

company information from a database:

Ingersoll-Rand Company Limited. (2004). Company profile. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Hoovers in Lexis-Nexis.

An article posted on an open-access or personal

website:

Cain, A., & Burris, M. (1999, April). Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving. Retrieved from http://www.cutr.eng.usf.edu/its/mobile_phone_text. htm

Archer, Z. (n.d.). Exploring nonverbal communication. Retrieved from http://zzyx.ucsc.edu/~archer

A cd-rom publication:

Reporter, M. (1996, April 13). Electronic citing guidelines needed [CD-ROM]. New York Times, (late ed.), p. c1. Retrieved from New York Times Ondisc.

? Websites

Website of an organization or government:

Wisconsin department of natural resources. (2001). Glacial Habitat Restoration Areas. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/hess

Midwest league. (n.d.). Pitching, Individual Records. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ hens

A personal homepage: (retrieval date is included due

to possibility of change)

Duncan, D. (1998, August 1). Homepage. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ibm

A posting to an online discussion group or listserv:

Marcy, B. (1999, April 3). Think theyll find any evidence of Mallory & Irvine [electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/ mse

A blog post:

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www. cscanada.net/index.php/pam

An online video:

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/sll

NOTE: The URL should not be underlined. Sometimes underlining appears automatically when a URL is displayed in a browser or in Word. Remove the underlining before submitting your paper.

Footnotes

Content footnotes are occasionally used to support substantive information in the text (or to acknowledge copyright permission status). They begin on a separate page with a heading centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. The first line of each footnote is indented 5-7 spaces and they are numbered with Arabic superscript numerals following punctuation marks within the text.

Tables

Tables should each be presented portrait (not landscape) direction and upright on the page, not sideways. Tables have a short, one-line title in bold text. Tables should be no larger than one page (140mm*180mm). Symbols and abbreviations are definite immediately below the table, followed by essential descriptive material as briefly as possible, all in double-spaced text. We also use APA format on tables you can visit http://www.apastyle.org/ for detail information. Here is the example. We strongly advise you to put your tables at the relevant places in your article not in the end of your article.

Figures

CSCanada requires figures in electronic format. Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper. Unnecessary figures and parts(panels) of figures should be avoided. Avoid unnecessary complexity, colorful and over amount of details. For instruction, CSCanada standard figure sizes are 95mm(single column) and 190mm (double column) and the full depth of the page is 283mm. We strongly advise you to put your figures at the relevant places in your article not in the end of your article. The figures also are suggested in APA format you can visit http://www.apastyle.org/ for detail information.

? Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and follow SI nomenclature or the nomenclature common to a particular field. Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000). Unusual units or abbreviations are defined in the legend. Scale bars should be used rather than magnification factors. Where possible, text, including keys to symbols, should be provided in the legend rather than on the figure itself. At initial submission, figures should be at good quality to be assessed by referees, ideally as JPEGs, PNGs, and BMPs. Editorial

Editorials are the voice of the journal and are written by the journals editorial-writing team and usually present commentary and analysis concerning an article in the issue of the journal in which they appear. They may include 3 figures or tables. They are nearly always solicited, although unsolicited editorials may occasionally be considered. Editorials are limited to 1500 words, with up to 30 references.

RECRUITMENT

We are seeking qualified researchers and scholars to join our editorial team as editors, sub-editors or reviewers. For more information, please send an email to: office@ cscanada.net, office@cscanada.org.

CALL FOR PAPERS

All CSCanada journals welcome innovative contributions. The host organizations of our 14 journals are Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture, Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures with their headquarter in Montreal, Canada registered in Quebec and are committed to scientific research and spreading eastern and western cultures. Please submit your paper according to our guide on the website www. cscanada.org.

PUBLICATION FEE

All CSCanada journals are international, peer-reviewed, Open-Access journals. Articles published by our journals are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. Authors of accepted articles must pay a publication fee. The related standards are as follows. Publication fee in 2013: $300 USD per article. After the payment is done, authors have to send the proof of payment to related email address.

INDEXED/INCLUDED/ARCHIVED

Energy Science and Technology is indexed and included and archived by databases from the following famous companies or organizations: The journal archived in Library and Archives Canada(http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/index-e.html) The journal indexed in CAS (http://www.cas.org/) The journal included in AMICUS The journal indexed in ProQuest LIC. (http://www. proquest.com/) The journal indexed in Gale (http://www.gale.cengage. com/) The journal indexed in EBSCO Publishing (http:// www.ebscohost.com/) The journal indexed in DOAJ (http://www.doaj.org/) The journal indexed in CNKI (http://scholar.cnki.net) The journal indexed in Ulrichs (http://www. ulrichsweb.com/) The journal indexed in Google Scholar (http://scholar. google.com ) The journal included in PKP Open Archives Harvester(http://pkp.sfu.ca/) The journal indexed in Open Access (http://www. openaccess. net/) The journal included in Open J-gate (http://www. openj-gate.com) The journal included in Ulrichs Periodicals Directory(http://www.ulrichsweb.com)